Effects of dietary replacement of fish oil with canola oil in the diet of juvenile common carp, Cyprinus carpio on growth performance and feeding utilization of body and diet economic index

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc. Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural Resources, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural Resources, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Iran

3 outh of Iran Aquaculture Research Center, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural Resources, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Iran


This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary replacement of fish oil with canola oil on
growth performance, feed efficiency of body and Economic indices of experimental diets of juvenile
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). During the experiment 270 juvenile fish with an average initial
weight of 16.24 ± 0.10g were randomly distributed in 18 well aerated cylindrical polyethylene tanks
(15 fish per 300L capacity tank). Experimental fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (crude protein
content 30.02 percent), isolipidic (crude lipid content 8.77 percent) and isoenergetic (1.184 MJ/kg )
diets consisting of six levels of dietary replacement of fish oil (FO) with canola oil (CO) (100FO,
80FO20CO, 60FO40CO, 40FO60CO, 20FO80CO and 100 CO), for 56 days. One-way ANOVA
showed no significant difference (P>0.05), in growth performance, feed efficiency parameters,
hepatosomatic index (HSI), cardiosomatic index, condition factor and economic index between the
experimental treatments. However, ANOVA showed a significant difference in survival rates, net lipid
utilization (NLU) and the viscerosomatic index (VSI) (P <0.05) While the highest and lowest VSI and
NLU were recorded in the first and sixth treatments, respectively, Moreover, highest and lowest
viscerosomatic index were observed in the sixth and the fourth dietary treatments, respectively. Based
on the variation in growth and feeding indices it could be presumed that incase of longer duration of
the experiments significant variation in growth and feeding indices would have been observed that
maybe due to the imbalance of essential fatty acids in fifth and sixth dietary treatment and failure to
provide complete body needs for fatty acids. Moreover, taking into consideration the poor results
obtained in the condition and economic indices of fifth and sixth treatments, it could be concluded that
the most suitable dietary treatment for feeding juvenile common carp is replacement of 60% of fish oil
with canola oil.


Main Subjects

[1].             Almaida-Pagán, P., Hernández, M., García García, B., Madrid, J., De Costa, J., Mendiola, P., 2007. Effects of total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils on n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid desaturation and elongation in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) hepatocytes and enterocytes. Aquaculture 272, 589-598.
[2].             AOAC, 1995. Official methods of analysis of Official Analytical Chemists International. . Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
[3].             Aprodu, I., Vasile, A., Gurau, G., Ionescu, A., Paltenea, E., 2012. Evaluation of nutritional quality of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) enriched in fatty acids. Annals of the University" Dunarea de Jos" of Galati-Fascicle VI: Food Technology 36, 61-73.
[4].             Bell, J.G., McVicar, A.H., Park, M., Sargent, J.R., 1991. High dietary linoleic acid affects fatty acid compositions of individual phospholipids from tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): association with stress susceptibility and cardiac lesion. J. Nutr. 121, 163-172.
[5].             Bendiksen, E.A., Arnesen, A.M., Jobling, M., 2003. Effects of dietary fatty acid profile and fat content on smolting and seawater performance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 225, 149-163.
[6].             Berge, G.M., Witten, P.E., Baeverfjord, G., Vegusdal, A., Wadsworth, S., Ruyter, B., 2009. Diets with different n− 6/ n− 3 fatty acid ratio in diets for juvenile Atlantic salmon, effects on growth, body composition, bone development and eicosanoid production. Aquaculture 296, 299-308.
[7].             Bolanile, F.S., 2011. Effect of replacing dietary fish oil with vegitable oils on the economics of Cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) feed production Ph.D, department of aquaculture and fisheries management, college of environmental resources management. university of agriculture, abeokuta, ogun, 59 p.
[8].             Bolasina, S.N., Fenucci, J.L., 2007. Effects of dietary lipid level on growth, survival and body composition of Brazilian codling (Urophycis brasiliensis Kaup, 1858). Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 42, 23 - 27.
[9].             Bransden, M.P., Carter, C.G., Nichols, P.D., 2003. Replacement of fish oil with sunflower oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): effect on growth performance, tissue fatty acid composition and disease resistance. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 135, 611-625.
[10].         Caballero, M. J., Obach, A., Rosenlund, G., Montero, D., Gisvold, M., & Izquierdo, M.S., 2002. Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 214, 253-271.
[11].         Cui, Y., Wootton, R.J., 1998. Effects of ration, temperature and body size on the body composition, energy content and condition of the minnow,  (Phoxinus phoxinus L.) .J. FishBiol 32, 749-764.
[12].         De Smet, S., Raes, K., Demeyer, D., 2004. Meat fatty acid composition as affected by fatness and genetic factors: a review. Animal Research, 53, 81-98.
[13].         Drew, M.D., Ogunkoya, A.E., Janz, D.M., Van Kessel, A.G., 2007. Dietary influence of replacing fish meal and oil with canola protein concentrate and vegetable oils on growth performance, fatty acid composition and organochlorine residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 267, 260-268.
[14].         Enache, I., Cristea, V., Ionescu, T., Dediu, L., Docan, A., 2012. The influnce of intensity on the growth performance of common carp in a reciculating aquaculture system condition. University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi.
[15].         Eroldoğan, O.T., Yılmaz, H.A., Arslan, M., Sirkecioğlu, A.N., Engin, K., Türkmen, S., Çiçek, I.C., Dedeler, H., 2010. Apparent digestion of nutrient and fatty acid in european sea bass  (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed rapeseed or cottonseed oil-based  diets. In: (Eds.), Proceeding of Aquaculture Europe 2010, Porto, Portugal. pp. 420 pp.
[16].         Fountoulaki, E., Vasilaki, A., Hurtado, R., Grigorakis, K., Karacostas, I., Nengas, I., Rigos, G., Kotzamanis, Y., Venou, B., Alexis, M., 2009. Fish oil substitution by vegetable oils in commercial diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.); effects on growth performance, flesh quality and fillet fatty acid profile: Recovery of fatty acid profiles by a fish oil finishing diet under fluctuating water temperatures. Aquaculture 289, 317-326.
[17].         Francis, D.S., Turchini, G.M., Jones, P.L., De Silva, S.S., 2006. Effects of dietary oil source on growth and fillet fatty acid composition of Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii peelii. Aquaculture 253, 547-556.
[18].         Glencross, B., Hawkins, W., Curnow, J., 2003. Evaluation of canola oils as alternative lipid resources in diets for juvenile red seabream, Pagrus auratus. Aquaculture Nutrition 9, 305-315.
[19].         Grant, A.A., Baker, D., Higgs, D.A., Brauner, C.J., Richards, J.G., Balfry, S.K., Schulte, P.M., 2008. Effects of dietary canola oil level on growth, fatty acid composition and osmoregulatory ability of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Aquaculture 277, 303-312.
[20].         Guillou, A., Soucy, P., Khalil, M., Adambounou, L., 1995. Effects of vegetable and marine lipid on growth, muscle fatty acid composition and organoleptic quality of flesh of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). . Aquaculture, 136, 351-362.
[21].         GÜLER, M., YILDIZ, M., 2011. Effects of dietary fish oil replacement by cottonseed oil on growth performance and fatty acid composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci 35.
[22].         Karalazos, V., 2007. Sustainable alternatives to fish meal and fish oil in fish nutrition: effects on growth, tissue fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism.
[23].         Kris-Etherton, P.M., Hecker, K.D., Bonanome, A., Coval, S.M., Binkoski, A.E., Hilpert, K.F., Griel, A.E., Etherton, T.D., 2002. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The American journal of medicine 113, 71P.
[24].         Lochmann, R.T., Gatlin, D.M.I., 1993. Essential fatty acid requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Fish Physiol. Biochem 12, 221-235.
[25].         Montero, D., Grasso, V., Izquierdo, M., Ganga, R., Real, F., Tort, L., Caballero, M., Acosta, F., 2008. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) diets: effects on hepatic Mx expression and some immune parameters. Fish & shellfish immunology 24, 147-155.
[26].         Montero, D., Izquierdo, M., 2010. Welfare and health of fish fed vegetable oils as alternative lipid sources to fish oil. Fish oil replacement and alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds, 439-485.
[27].         Mourente, G., Good, J., Bell, J., 2005. Partial substitution of fish oil with rapeseed, linseed and olive oils in diets for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): effects on flesh fatty acid composition, plasma prostaglandins E2 and F2α, immune function and effectiveness of a fish oil finishing diet. Aquaculture Nutrition 11, 25-40.
[28].         Mráz, J., 2011. Lipid quality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in pond culture. 84p.
[29].         Nasopoulou, C., Zabetakis, I., 2012. Benefits of fish oil replacement by plant originated oils in compounded fish feeds. A review. LWT - Food Science and Technology 47, 217-224.
[30].         Ng, W.K., Tocher, D.R., Bell, J.G., 2007. The use of palm oil in aquaculture feeds for salmonid species. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109, 394-399.
[31].         Minabi, Kh., Zakeri, M., Mosavi, S. M., Minabi, E., 2013. The influence of feeding frequency and water temperature on the growth, feed utilization and body biochemical composition of juvenile benni fish (Barbus sharpyii). Journal of Veterinary Research, 91, 1-10.
[32].         NRC, 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish 1993.  Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academies Press.
[33].         Peng, S., Chen, L., Qin, J.G., Hou, J., Yu, N., Long, Z., Ye, J., Sun, X., 2008. Effects of replacement of dietary fish oil by soybean oil on growth performance and liver biochemical composition in juvenile black seabream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Aquaculture 276  154-161.
[34].         Robaina, L., Izquierdo, M., Moyano, F., Socorro, J., Vergara, J., Montero, D., 1998. Increase of the dietary n− 3/ n− 6 fatty acid ratio and addition of phosphorus improves liver histological alterations induced by feeding diets containing soybean meal to gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata. Aquaculture 161, 281-293.
[35].         Rodrıguez, C., Pérez, J., Badıa, P., Izquierdo, M., Fernández-Palacios, H., Hernández, A.L., 1998. The n− 3 highly unsaturated fatty acids requirements of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) larvae when using an appropriate DHA/EPA ratio in the diet. Aquaculture 169, 9-23.
[36].         Rosenlund, G., Obach, A., Sandberg, M.G., Standal, H., Tveit, K., 2001. Effect of alternative lipid sources on long-term growth performance and quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquac. Res 32, 323-328.
[37].         Saikia, S.K., & Das, D.N., 2009. Feeding ecology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in a rice-fish culture system of the Apatani plateau (Arunachal Pradesh, India). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10452-008-9174-y
[38].         Sargent, J.R., Tocher, D.R., Bell, J.G., 2002. The lipids. In: Fish Nutrition (Ed. J. E. Halver and R. W. Hardy) 3rd. Fish nutrition 3, 181-257.
[39].         Shir-Mohammad, F., Mahboobi Soofiani, N., Pourreza, J., 1383.  Effect of Phytase Supplementation and Copper on Growth Performance and Carcass Composition of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). JWSS - Isfahan University of Technology. 2005; 8, 133-143.
[40].         Stubhaug, I., Lie, Ø., Torstensen, B., 2007. Fatty acid productive value and β‐oxidation capacity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed on different lipid sources along the whole growth period. Aquaculture Nutrition 13, 145-155.
[41].         Swapna, H., Rai, A.K., Bhaskar, N., Sachindra, N., 2010. Lipid classes and fatty acid profile of selected Indian fresh water fishes. Journal of Food Science and Technology 47, 394-400.
[42].         Tacon, A., 2004. Use of fish meal and fish oil in aquaculture: a global perspective. Aquatic Resources, Culture and Development, 1, 3-14.
[43].         Tacon, A.G., Hasan, M.R., Subasinghe, R.P., 2006. Use of fishery resources as feed inputs for aquaculture development: trends and policy implications. FAO fisheries circular. No. 1018. FAO Fisheries Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
[44].         Takeuchi, T., Satoh, S., Kiron, V., 2002. Common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Nutrient Requirements and Feeding of Finfish for Aquaculture, 245-261.
[45].         Tan, X.-y., Luo, Z., Xie, P., Liu, X.-j., 2009. Effect of dietary linolenic acid/linoleic acid ratio on growth performance, hepatic fatty acid profiles and intermediary metabolism of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Aquaculture 296, 96-101.
[46].         Thomassen, M.S., Røsjø, C., 1989. Different fats in feed for salmon: influence on sensory parameters, growth rate and fatty acids in muscle and heart. . Aquaculture 79, 129-135.
[47].         Troca, D.F.A., Vieira, J.P., 2012. Potencial invasor dos peixes não nativos cultivados na região costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca 38, 109-120.
[48].         Turchini, G.M., Francis, D.S., 2009. Fatty acid metabolism (desaturation, elongation and b-oxidation) in rainbow trout fed fish oil-or linseed oil-based diets. Br J Nutr 102, 69-81.
[49].         Turchini, G.M., Moretti, V.M., Hermon, K., Caprino, F., Busetto, M.L., Bellagamba, F., Rankin, T., Keast, R.S.J., Francis, D.S., 2013. Monola oil versus canola oil as a fish oil replacer in rainbow trout feeds: Effects on growth, fatty acid metabolism and final eating quality. Food Chemistry 141, 1335-1344.
[50].         Turchini, G.M., Ng, W.-K., Tocher, D.R., 2010. Fish oil replacement and alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds. CRC Press, p.
[51].         Turchini, G., & Mailer, R. J., 2010. Rapeseed (canola) oil and other monounsaturated fatty acid-rich vegetable oils. In G. M. Turchini, W. K. Ng & D. R. Tocher (Eds.), Fish oil replacement and alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds, pp. 161-208.
[52].         Wassef, E.A., Saleh, N.E., El-Hady, Heyam, A., El-Abd, 2009. Vegetable oil blend as alternative lipid resources in diets for gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata. Aquaculture International 17, 421-435.
[53].         Wassef, E.A., Shalaby, S.H., Sakr, E.M., 2004. Evaluation of three plant oils in practical diets for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). In: (Eds.), Proceeding of 11th International Symposium of Nutrition and Feeding in  Fish, hailand. 82 pp.
[54].         Yıldız, M., Eroldoğan, O.T., Engin, K., Baltaci, M.A., 2010. Effects of dietary cottonseed and/or canola oil inclusion on the growth performance and fatty acid composition of the juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. In: (Eds.), Proceeding of Paper presented in 14th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding, , Qingdao, China, 200 pp.