A comprehensive overview of Mycobacteriosis; zoonosis and transmissible disease between fish and humans

Document Type : review paper


1 Resident of aquatic animals health and diseases at faculty of veterinary medicine, university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Aquatic Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Nowadays, due to the significant increase in the number of referrals of sick fish to aquatic animal specialists and clinics and the consequent increase in their contact with fish, the importance of the need to obtain the necessary knowledge and accurate and comprehensive information on how to prevent zoonosis disease's transmission from fish to human, is understood increasingly not only for aquatic professionals but also for all people involved in the field of aquaculture. One of the most well-known zoonose diseases among fish and humans, which is transmitted to humans through direct contact, is a disease caused by the invasion of mycobacteria called fish mycobacteriosis or tuberculosis. Mycobacteria are a group of aerobic, non-motile bacilli that are acid-alcohol resistant and grow slowly. They can cause prominent granulomatous nodules and extensive losses in fish. Exposure of human skin abrasions to sources contaminated with Mycobacteria can lead to the formation of different types of tuberculosis in humans. The clinical manifestation of this disease is often in the form of not so painful nodules with skin ulcers and scars in humans. A variety of methods such as culture, PCR, and preparation of histopathological sections can be used to identify and diagnose Mycobacteriosis. This study provided comprehensive information on the introduction, clinical signs, necropsy symptoms, pathological symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, control, treatment, and health considerations associated with fish Mycobacteriosis.