مطالعة تغییر برخی شاخص‌های یونی، بیوشیمیایی و هورمونی در بچه‌ماهیان سفید (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskii 1901) رهاسازی‌شده در مصب رودخانة تجن (ساری)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، مؤسسة تحقیقات شیلات ایران، پژوهشکدة اکولوژی آبزیان دریای خزر، ساری، ایران

5 استادیار، عضو هیئت علمی انیستیتو تحقیقاتی بیوفیزیک و بیوشیمی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران




رهاسازی بچه‌ماهیان سفید در نزدیکی مصب رودخانه انجام می‌شود که محل انباشت آلودگی‌های شیمیایی، سموم و فلزات سنگین است. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی چگونگی تطبیق اسمزی و یونی در بچه‌ماهیان سفید و در مصب رودخانة تجن (ساری) با مطالعة برخی شاخص‌های تنظیم فشار اسمزی انجام گرفت. تعداد 50 عدد بچه‌ماهی سفید (5/0 گرم) در هشت قفس رهاسازی شدند که به طور عرضی در محل رهاسازی بچه‌ماهیان سفید در رودخانة مذکور قرار گرفته بودند. قفس‌ها به دو گروه تقسیم شدند: یک گروه روز اول ماهی‌دار و پس از هفت روز نمونه‌برداری شد. گروه دوم در روز چهارم ماهی‌دار شد و نمونه‌برداری از آن‌ها در ساعات 36، 48 و 72 پس از رهاسازی انجام شد. نتایج اختلاف معنا‌داری را از نظر فاکتورهای مورد بررسی (به جز یون کلر و هورمون T4) بین گروه کنترل و گروه‌های آزمایشی نشان داد (05/0 P<). میزان یون‌های بررسی‌شده در گروه‌های آزمایشی بیشتر از گروه کنترل بود و در مورد یون‌های سدیم و پتاسیم روند افزایشی در میزان یون‌ها از ساعت 72 تا روز هفتم دیده شد. میزان هورمون T3 و درصد رطوبت بدن در ماهیان نگهداری‌شده در قفس‌ها کمتر از گروه کنترل بود و در برخی موارد اختلاف معنا‌داری با گروه کنترل داشت (05/0 P<). مقدار هورمون T4، گلوکز، پروتئین کل و درصد تلفات در ماهیان نگهداری‌شده در قفس‌ها به طور غالب بیش از گروه کنترل بود. از نظر هورمون کورتیزول میزان و وضعیت نسبتاً مشابهی بین گروه قفس‌ها و گروه کنترل تا ساعت 72 دیده شد، اما در روز هفتم روند کورتیزول در گروه کنترل افزایشی و در گروه قفس‌ها کاهشی ارزیابی شد. برایند نتایج حاکی از اختلال در موفقیت بچه‌ماهیان سفید در تنظیم اسمزی و تطبیق با آب شور در رودخانة تجن است.



عنوان مقاله [English]

The change of some ion, hormone and biochemical factors in released fingerling of kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamensky, 1901) at the estuarine of Tajan river (Sari)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mohiseni 1
  • Bagher Mojazi Amiri 2
  • Alireza Mirvaghefi 3
  • Mohammad Vahid Farabi 4
  • Gholamhossein Riazi 5
1 Ph.D Candidate of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Fisheries, University of Tehran, Karadj, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, Ecology Faculty of the Caspian Sea, Sari, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Releasing of Kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskii 1901) fingerling almost done in the estuarine,
where are cumulative site of various pollutant such as chemicals, pesticides and heavy metals.
Therefore, investigation of the modality of osmo&ion regulation of kutum fingerlings in the Tajan
river (Sari) by means of some osmoregulatory factors, was the aim of this study. Fifty fingerling fishes
(0.5 gram) were released in eight cages that located in transverse manner in the estuarine of mentioned
river. Cages were divided to two groups: The first group was stocked at initial time and sampled after
7 days. In order to assessment of osmoregulatory capability of fingerlings in the shorter times, the
second group was stocked at the fourth day of the first group stocking and were sampled after 36, 48
and 72 hours. Based on results, significant difference was observed about obtained factors (except of
chloride and T4) between experimental cages and control groups (P<0.05). An amount of measured
ions in fingerling fishes of experimental cages was greater than control group and ascending trend was
observed in the case of sodium, chloride and potassium from 72 hours to seventh day. The rate of T3
and water body content (%) in the fish of cage group were lower than control group and significant
difference was observed in particular times (P<0.05). The quantity of T4, glucose, total protein and
mortality percent in the fingerling fishes of cage group were dominantly bigger than control group.
The same trends was observed in the case of cortisol between two groups until 72 hours, but an
ascending and descending trend was detected at the seventh day in control and cage groups
respectively. Resultant of the obtained results osmoregulatory disorder and failure in salinity
adaptation in fingerling of the kutum fish was observed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • kutum fish fingerling
  • Osmoregulation
  • Pollution
  • salinity adaptation
  • Tajan river
[1]. Abdoli, A., 1999. The inland water fishes of Iran. Natural and Wild Life Museum of Iran, Tehran, Iran. 198–200.

[2]. Abdolmaleki, SH., 2006. Investigation on the change in resources of Kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskii 1901). Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal. 15(2), 87-99.

[3]. Al-Attar, A.M., 2007. The influences of nickel exposure on selected physiological parameters and gill structure in the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Biological Sciences. 7(1), 77-85.

[4]. Allen, P. J., Cech, J. J., 2007. Age/Size effects on juvenile Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), oxygen consumption, growth and osmoregulation in saline environments. Environmental Biology of Fish. 79, 211-229.

[5]. Brown, J.A., 1993. Endocrine responses to environmental pollutants. In: Rankin, J.C., Jensen, F.B. (Eds.), Fish Ecophysiology. Chapman & Hall, London, pp, 276–296.

[6]. Camargo, M.M.P., Fernandes, M.N., Martinez, B.R., 2009. How aluminium exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in the neotropical freshwater fish Prochilus lineatus. Aquatic Toxicology. 94, 40–46.

[7]. Dean, D.B., Whitlow, Z.W., Borski, R.J., 2003. Glucocorticoid receptor upregulation during seawater adaptation in a euryhaline teleost, the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).  General and Comparative Endocrinology. 132, 112–118.

[8]. Ebadi, A.G., Zare, S., 2005. Measurement of organophosphorus pesticide in fish from the Tajan river. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science. 8(10), 1463-1465.

[9]. Eslami, S. Hajizadeh Moghadam, A., Jafari, N., Nabavi, S.F., Ebrahimzadeh, M.A., 2010. Trace element level in different tissues of Rutilus frisii kutum collected from Tajan river, Iran. Biological Trace Element Research. 9pp.

[10].         Exley, C., Chappell, J.S., Birchall, J.D., 1991. A mechanism for acute aluminium toxicity in fish. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 151, 417–428.

[11].         Eyckmans, M., Tudorache, C., Darras, V.M., Blust, R., DE Boeck, G., 2010. Hormonal and ion regulatory response in three freshwater fish species following waterborne copper exposure. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part C. 152, 270–278.

[12].         Farabi, S.M.V., Khoshbavar Rostami, H., Ghaneei Tehrani, M., Ghiasi, M., Azari, A., Behrouzi, S., Mosavi, H., Firozkanian, S., Habibi, F., Zahedi Tabarestani, A., Mallaeki, H., Mahdavi Amiri, A., Aghlmandi, F., Binaei, M., 2007. The investigation of status brood stocks and releasing fingerlings of Rutilus frisii kutum (Kaminskii, 1901) in the south of Caspian Sea (Mazandaran province, 2004). Pajouhesh & Sazandgi. 74, 156-166.

[13].         Farmen, E., Mikkelsen, H.N., Evensen, O., Einset, J., Heier, L.S., Rosseland, B.O., Salbu, B., Tollefsen, K.E., Oughton, D.H., 2012. Acute and sub-lethal effects in juvenile Atlantic salmon exposed to low µg/L concentrations of Ag nanoparticles. Aquatic Toxicology. 108, 78– 84.

[14].         Garcia-Santos, S., Vargas-Chacoff, L., Ruiz-Jarabo, I., Varela, J.L., Mancera, J.M., Fontainhas-Fernandes, A., Wilson, J.M., 2011. Metabolic and osmoregulatory changes and cell proliferation in gilt head sea bream (Sparus aurata) exposed to cadmium. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 74, 270–278.

[15].         Handeland, S. O., Berge, A., Bjornsson, B. Th. & Stefansson, S. O., 1998. Effects of temperature & salinity on osmoregulation growth of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in seawater. Aquaculture. 168, 289-302. 

[16].         Handy, R. D., Depledge, M. H., 1999. Physiological responses: Their measurement and use as environmental biomarkers in ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology. 8, 329-349.

[17].         Hosseinzadeh Sahaf, H., Abdollahi, H.A., Sayadfar, J., Shoaaee, H., Tolouee, M., Khedmati, K., Khanipour, A., 2012. Effect of morpholine on imprinting and homing migration in kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum).  Journal of Science (Teacher Training University). 10(3), 901-914.

[18].         Kalantari, M.R., Ebadi, A.G., 2006., Measurement of some heavy metals in sediments from two great river (Tajan and Neka) of Iran. Journal of Applied Science. 6(5), 1071-1073.

[19].         Kaneko, T., Watanabe, S., Kyung Mi, L., 2008. Functional morphology of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline and stenohaline teleost. Aqua Biosci. Monogr., 1(1), 1-62.

[20].         Karbasi, A., Nabi Bidhendi, GH., Ghazban, F., Koukabi Habibzade, SH., 2010. Chemical partitioning and pollution intensity of heavy metals in sediment of Siahroud river. Journal of Environmental Studies. 53, 11-20.

[21].         Lerner, D.T., Bjornsson, B.T., McCormick, S.D., 2007. Aqueous exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17βestradiol increases stress sensitivity and disrupts ion regulatory ability of juvenile atlantic salmon. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 26(7), 1433-1440.

[22].         Lohner, T.W., Reash, R.J., Willet, V.E., Fletcher, J., 2001. Assessment of tolerant sunfish populations (Lepomis sp.) inhabiting selenium-laden coal ash effluents. Part 3. Serum chemistry and fish health indicators. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 50, 225–232.

[23].         Marshall, W. S., Emberley, T. R., Singer, T. D., Bryson. S. E., McCormick, S. D., 1999. Time course of salinity adaptation in a strongly euryhaline estuarine teleost (Fundulus heteroclitus): A multivariable approach. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 202, 1535-1544.

[24].         Mc Cormick, S.D., Odea, M.F., Moeckel. A.M., Lerner, D.T., Bjornsson, B.T., 2005. Endocrine disruption of parr-smolt transformation and seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon by 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 142, 280–288.

[25].         Mehrdadi, N., Ghobadi, M., Nasrabadi, T., Hoveidi, H., 2006. Evaluation of the quality and Self-purification potential of Tajan river using QUAL2E model. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering. 3(3), 199-204.

[26].         Monette, M.Y., Bjornsson, B.T., McCormick, S.D., 2008. Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 158, 122–130.

[27].         Monette, M.Y., Yada, T., Matey, V., McCormick, S.D., 2010. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum. Aquatic Toxicology. (99), 17–32.

[28].         Nieves-Puigdoller, K., Bjornsson, B.T., McCormick, S.D., 2007. Effects of hexazinone and atrazine on the physiology and endocrinology of smolt development in Atlantic salmon. Aquatic Toxicology. 84, 27-37.

[29].         Nilsen, T.O., Ebbesson, L.O.E., Kverneland, O.G., Kroglund, F., Finstad, B., Stefansson, S.O., 2010. Effects of acidic water and aluminum exposure on gill Na+, K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms, enzyme activity, physiology and return rates in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquatic Toxicology. 97, 250–259.

[30].         Peter, M.C.S., 2011. The role of thyroid hormones in stress response of fish. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 172, 198–210.

[31].         Peterson, B.C., Booth, N.J., 2010. Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 36, 661–665.

[32].         Ramsay, J. M., Feist, G. W., Varga, Z. M., Westerfield, M., Kent, M. L. & Schreck, C. B., 2006. Whole-body cortisol is an indicator of crowding stress in adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquaculture, 258, 565-574.

[33].         Ranjbar, A., Hadian, A., 2008. Research on DDT in Sefidrood river’s sediments (between Tarik dam and Kiashahr port). Pajouhesh & Sazandegi. 81, 81-86.

[34].         Saeedi, M., Karbasi, A., Nabi bidhendi, GH., Mehrdadi, N., 2006. The effect of human activity on heavy metal accumulation in Tajan river, Mazandaran Province. Journal of Environmental Studies. 40, 41-50.

[35].         Saeedi, M., Karbasi, A., Nabi Bidhendi, GH.,Gitipour, S., 2002. The behavior of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu in sediment and suspending solids of Tajan river while mixing with Caspian sea water. Journal of Environmental Studies. Journal of Environmental Studies. 31, 21-30.

[36].         Salehi, H., 2008. Comparative economics of Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) fingerling production and releasing over the 2001-2003 in north of Iran. Pajouhesh va Sazandegi. 20(4), 131-140.

[37].         Shayeghi, M., Shahtaheri, S.J., Selsele, M., 2001. Phosphorous insecticides residues in Mazandaran. river waters, Iran (2000). Iranian Journal of Public Health. 30(3-4), 115-118.

[38].         Sink, T.D., Kumaran, S., Lochmann, R., 2007. Development of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for determination of stress in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas.  Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 33, 189–193..

[39].         Varedi, S.E., Fazli, H., 2005. Analyzing water quality in Mazanaran Province rivers during release of fish fingerling. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal. 14, 167-182.

[40].         Waring, C.P., Brown, J.A., Collins, J.E., Prunet, P., 1996. Plasma prolactin, cortisol, and thyroid responses of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to lethal and sublethal aluminium in acidic soft water. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 102, 377–385.

[41].         Waring, C.P., Moore, A., 2004. The effect of atrazine on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in fresh water and after sea water transfer. Aquatic Toxicology. 66, 93–104.

[42].         WHO, 1993. WHO's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, set up in Geneva, 1993, are the international reference point for standard setting and drinking-water safety.

[43].         Zare, S., Ebadi, A.G., 2005. Measurement of heavy metals in fish from the Tajan river. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science. 8(10), 1460-1462.