بررسی فعالیت کولین استرازی بافت‌های سیاه ماهی (Capoeta capoeta gracilis, Keyserling, 1861) در حوضة گرگان‌رود به‌منزلة شاخصی زیستی در پایش محیط زیست

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد،گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدة علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

4 استاد گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

شاخص‌های زیستی سیستم‌های هشدار اولیه در مواجهة جانداران آبی با آلاینده‌ها هستند. در میان آن‌ها اندازه‌گیری فعالیت آنزیم‌های استرازی و خصوصاً کولین استرازها در بافت‌های ماهی شاخصی برای مواجهه با آفت‌کش‌های فسفرة آلی و کاربامات‌هاست و از این شاخص در مطالعات مختلف استفاده شده است. سیاه‌ماهیان از ایستگاه‌های تعیین‌شده در حوضة گرگان‌رود در چهار فصل صید شدند و از بافت‌های کبد، ماهیچه و مغز آن‌ها نمونه‌برداری شد. فعالیت ویژه و درصد مهارشدگی استرازهای عمومی (به روش ون اسپرن) و استیل کولین استراز (به روش المن) اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که سطح آنزیمی هر سه بافت بین ایستگاه‌ها تفاوت معنی‌داری با هم داشت و بیشترین درصد مهارشدگی آنزیم‌های کولین استرازی در ایستگاه پایین‌دست (ایستگاه 5) گرگان‌رود و در فصل تابستان به میزان 75/38، 01/31 و 62/10 درصد به ترتیب در بافت‌های کبد، ماهیچه و مغز مشاهده شد. بنابراین استفاده از استیل کولین استراز کبدی این گونه ماهی به دلیل مهارشدگی بیشتر نسبت به آنزیم سایر بافت‌ها، به‌منزلة شاخصی زیستی در تعیین و درجه‌بندی آلودگی اکوسیستم‌های آب‌های جاری مورد پایش، توصیه می‌شود. همچنین بافت ماهیچه به علت وجود بوتیریل کولین استراز (در سنجش استرازهای عمومی)، که حساسیت بیشتری نسبت به مهارکننده‌ها دارد، می‌تواند در پایش محیط زیست به کار رود. بررسی این شاخص‌های آنزیمی در فصول مختلف سال نشان داد که بهتر است برنامه‌های پایش محیط زیست در فصول گرم سال و هم‌زمان با تقویم زراعی و سم‌پاشی زمین‌های کشاورزی انجام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Cholinesterase activity evaluation in Capoeta capoeta gracilis as Biomarker of enviromental monitoring in Gorgan-roud basin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nima Shiry 1
  • Alireza Mirvaghefi 2
  • Khalil Talebi Jahromi 3
  • Gholamreza Rafiee 4
1 MSc. Department of Fisheries science, Faculty of Natural resources, University of Tehran, , Karaj, Iran
2 Associate Prof. Department of Fisheries science, Faculty of Natural resources, University of Tehran, , Karaj, Iran
3 Prof. Department of Plant protection science, Faculty of Agriculture sciences, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Prof. Department of Fisheries science, Faculty of Natural resources, University of Tehran, , Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Biomarkers are assigned as early warning systems regarding aquatic organisms exposed to pollutants. Among which, however, measurement of esterase enzymes activity specially cholinesterase of fish tissues, is a marker for exposure to organophosphate pesticide and carbamates, and this biomarker has been used widely in broad range of investigations. A number of Capoeta capoeta gracilis (:Cyprinidae) samples were caught from five determined stations located in Gorgan river basin, followed by sampling from three distinct tissues including liver, muscle and brain. Special activity and inhibition percentage of both esterase enzyme and acethyle cholinesterase (Elman method) were also measured. According to our current results, significant differences were detected between enzyme levels of tree tissues of five stations. The maximum value of inhibition percentage of esterase enzymes of three tissues including liver, muscle and brain were calculated as 38.75, 31.01 and 10.62, respectively, when data of downstream of gorgan river at summer were taken into account. Hence, due to more inhibition as compared with the other enzyme tissues, we strongly propose the utilization of liver acetyle cholinesterase activity in this species as a biomarker regarding determination and classification of lotic water ecosystems pollution. Furthermore, muscle tissue, because of the presence of butyryl cholinesterase (measured in general esterase assay) which is commonly accompanied by more sensivity versus inhibitors, can be used consequently in environmental monitorings. As the last point of view, the study of such reliable markers in diverse seasons showed that the environmental monitoring programs can be more helpful as long as such investigations are carried out in warm seasons in one hand, and based on agronomical calendar plus spraying farms on the other.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • acethyle cholinesterase
  • Biomarkers
  • Capoeta capoeta gracilis
  • esterase enzymes
  • Gorgan River
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