بررسی تأثیر ویتامین C جیرة غذایی در رشد، ترکیب شیمیایی بدن و فعالیت برخی آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی بچه‌ماهی نورس آزاد دریای خزر (Salmo trutta caspius

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد تکثیر و پرورش آبزیان دانشکدة علوم دریایی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استاد گروه تکثیر و پرورش آبزیان دانشکدة علوم دریایی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 استادیار گروه شیلات دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست ،دانشگاه ملایر

چکیده

به‌ منظور بررسی عملکرد ویتامین C در ترکیب شیمیایی بدن و فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی شامل سوپراکسید دیسموتاز و کاتالاز در بچه‌ماهی نورس آزاد دریای خزر (Salmo trutta caspius)، پنج جیرة غذایی حاوی سطوح مختلف ویتامین C (صفر (شاهد)، 50، 250، 750 و 1500 میلی‌گرم ویتامین به ‌ازای هر کیلوگرم غذا) در سه تکرار و به‌ مدت شش هفته به بچه‌ماهیان با میانگین وزنی 02/0± 1/0 گرم خورانده شد. پس از گذشت شش هفته پرورش، نتایج شاخص‌های رشد و زنده‌مانی اختلاف معنی‌داری در بین تیمارها نشان داد (05/0>P) پایین‌ترین درصد میانگین افزایش وزن (BWG)، نرخ رشد ویژه (SGR) و زنده‌مانی در گروه شاهد و بالاترین درصد این فاکتورها در گروه تغذیه‌شده با سطح mg/kg 750 مشاهده شد. میزان تجمع ویتامین C در بافت با افزایش آن در جیرة غذایی رابطة مثبتی نشان داد. نیاز ویتامین C بر اساس درصد افزایش وزن بدن mg/kg 1/569 تخمین زده شد. نتایج بررسی ترکیب شیمیایی بدن نشان داد که مقادیر رطوبت، خاکستر، چربی و پروتئین اختلاف معنی‌داری بین تیمارها ندارند (05/0 <P). تأثیر تست استرس محدودیت اکسیژنی در فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانی سوپراکسید دیسموتاز و کاتالاز نشان داد که فعالیت این آنزیم‌ها بعد از اعمال تست استرس نسبت به قبل از آن افزایش معنی‌داری در تیمار کنترل داشته است (05/0>P) در حالی که فعالیت آنزیمی سایر تیمارها پس از اعمال استرس اختلاف معنی‌داری نسبت به قبل از استرس نشان نداد (05/0<P). بر اساس نتایج، سطح mg/kg 750 ویتامین C برای رشد و زنده‌مانی بچه‌ماهیان نورس آزاد دریای خزر پیشنهاد می‌شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of vitamin C effect on body composition and some antioxidant enzyme activities in Caspian brown trout fry (Salmo trutta caspius)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Khajavi 1
  • Abdolmohammad Abedian Kenari 2
  • Abas Zamani 3
1 The graduated M.Sc in Fisheries from Marine Sciences Faculty of Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran
2 The Professor in Fisheries Department of Marine Sciences Faculty of Tarbiat Modares University,Noor, Iran
چکیده [English]

   In order to study of vitamin C effect on body composition and antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase and catalase in five diets containing different levels of vitamin C (0, 50, 250, 750and 1500mg vitamin/kg diet) had been fed by Caspian brown trout fry (Salmo trutta caspius) for 6 weeks in triplicate. After 6 weeks, the findings of growth parameters and survival showed significant difference among groups (P< 0.05). The lowest amount of SGR, BWG and survival was observed in control group while the group of 750 mg/kg had the highest amount of  SGR, BWG and survival than those from others. The vitamin C concentration in tissue correlated positively with increasing its levels in diets. The vitamin C requirements were estimated to be 569.1 mg kg-1 based on body weight gain. Body composition including moisture, ash, fat and protein showed no significant difference among groups (P>0/05). The effect of confinement stress on antioxidant enzymes activity of control diet was indicated a sigtnificat increase in activity after stress than that from before sttress (P < 0.05), While other diets showed no significatnt diference between pre-stress and after stress (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that the 750 mg/kg vitamin C could be affected on growth and survival in caspian brown trout fty.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • vitamin c
  • Catalase
  • superoxide dismutase
  • Caspian brown trout fry
  • Body Composition
 

[1]. Ai, Q., Mai, K., Zhang, C., Xu, W., Duan, Q., Tan, B., and Liufu, Z., 2004. Effects of dietary vitamin C on growth and immune response of Japanese seabass. Aquaculture 242, 489-500.

[2]. AOAC., 2005 Official Method Of Analysis 17th (end), Washington. DC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

[3]. Bae, J.-young, Park, G.-hyun, Yoo, K.-yeol, Lee, J.-yeol, Kim, D.-jung, and Bai, S. C., 2012. Re-evaluation of the Optimum Dietary Vitamin C Requirement in Juvenile Eel Anguilla japonica by Using L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate. Aquaculture 25,1, 98 - 103.

[4]. Bendich, A., Machlin, L.J and Scandurra, O., 1986. The role antioxidant of vitamin C. Free Radical Biology and Medicine2, 419-444.

[5]. Brown, M., Lavens, P., 2001. Critical review of the concentration, interactions with other nutrients, and transfer of ascorbic acid in algae, crustaceans and fish. In: Dabrowski, K. (Ed.), Ascorbic Acid in Aquatic Organisms, Status and Perspectives. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 167–189.

[6]. Chen, R., Lochmann, R., Goodwin, A., Praveen, K., Dabrowski, K., and Lee, K.-jun. 2004. Effects of dietary vitamins C and E on alternative complement activity, hematology, tissue composition, vitamin concentrations and response to heat stress in juvenile golden shiner (Notemigonuscrysoleucas ). Aquaculture 242, 553 - 569.

[7]. Dabrowski,K., 2001.Ascorbic Acid in Aquatic Organisms—Status and Perspectives. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 255– 277.

[8]. Eo, J., and Lee, K.-jun. 2008. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on growth and non-specific immune responses of tiger puffer ,Takifugu rubripes. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 25, 5, 611-616.

[9]. Falahatkar, B. 2005. Effect of vitamin C on hematological, biochemical and growth parameters in gient sturgeon Huso huso. PhD thesis. Marine Sciences Faculty of Tarbiat Modares University, 84 p. (in persian).

[10]. Gao, J., Koshio, Sh., Ishikawa, M., Yokoyama, S and Mamauag, R., 2014. Interactive effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and reduction of oxidative stress in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed dietary oxidized fish oil. Aquaculture84-90

[11]. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC., 1990. Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease: an overview.Meth Enzymol186.1-85.

[12]. Halver, J and Hardy, R., 1989. Fish Nutrition. 3rd edition, Elsevier Science Publisher, California: P. 824.

[13]. Hampton MB, KettleAJ, Winterbourn CC., 1998.Inside the neutrophil phagosome:oxidants, myeloperoxidase, and bacterial killing. Blood 27,186–92.

[14]. Hamza, N., Mhetli, M., Ben Khemis, I., Cahu, C and Kestemont P. 2008. Effect of dietary phospholipd levels on performance, enzyme activities and fatty acid composition of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) larvae. Aquaculture 275, 274-282.

[15]. Hilton, J. W., Brown, R. G., Slinger, S. J., 1978. Effect of graded level of ascorbic acid in practical diet fed to raibow trout (Salmo gairderi). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 62, 427-432.

[16]. Izquierdo, M., Liu, J., Caballero, M. J., Ali, T.E.S., Hernandez-cruz, C.M., Valencia, A and Fernandez-palacios, H. 2002. Necessity of dietary lecithin and eicosapentaenoic acid for growth, survival, stress resistance and lipoprotein formation in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. Fish. Science 68, 1165-1172.

[17]. Kolkovski, S., Czesny, S., Yackey, C., Moreau, R., Cihla, F., Mahan, D and Dabrowski, K., 2000. The effect of vitamins C and E in ( n-3 ) highly unsaturated fatty acids-enriched Artemia nauplii on growth , survival , and stress resistance of fresh water walleye Stizostedion vitreum larvae. Aquaculture Nutrition6, 199-206.

[18]. Kumari, J. and  Sahoo, P. K., 2005. High dietary vitamin C affects growth, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance in Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 280, 25–33.

[19]. Machlin, L.J and Bendich, A., 1987. Food radical tissue damage: protective role of antioxidant nutrient. Federation of American societies for experimental biology1, 441-445.

[20]. Mourente, G., and Ciencias, F. D., 2000. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid / vitamin E ( PUFA / tocopherol ratio on antioxidant defence mechanisms of juvenile gilthead sea bream  Sparus aurata L. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 23, 337-351.

[21]. Mourente, G., Bell, J. G., and Tocher, D. R., 2007. Does dietary tocopherol level affect fatty acid metabolism in fish? Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 33, 269-280.

[22]. Martinez- Alvarez, R M., Morales, A E and Sanz, A., 2005. Antioxidant defenses in fish : Biotic and abiotic factors. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 15, 75-88.

[23]. Moreau, R and Dobrowsky, K., 2000. Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid by extant actinopterygians. Fish Biology 57, 733-745.

[24]. Navarre, O and Halver, J. E., 1989. Disease  resistance  and humoral  antibody  production  in  rainbow  trout  fed high  levels  of  vitamin  C. Aquaculture 79, 207-221.

[25]. Nelis, H. J., De Leenheer, A. P., 1997. Liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin C in aquatic organism. Choromatographic Science 35, 337-341.

[26].  Ovissipour, M. R. 2006. Daphnia enrichment by fish oil and vitamin C and its performance on growth, survival and body composition of  Persian sturgeon Acipencer persicus. M.Sc thesis. Marine Sciences faculty of Tarbiat Modares University, 38 p. (in persian).

[27]. Park, J. B and Levine, M., 1996. Purification, cloning, and expression of dehydroascorbic acid reduction activity from human neutrophils: Identification as glutaredoxin. Biochemistry 315, 931-8.

[28]. Piedecausa, M. A., Mazon, M.J., Garcia, B.G and Hernandez, M.D.2007. Effect of total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in the diets of sharpsnout seabream (Diaplodus puntazzo). Aquaculture  263, 211-219.

[29]. Puangkaew, J., Kiron V., Satoh S., and Watanabe T., 2005. Antioxidant defense of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ) in relation to dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E contents. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 140, 187 - 196.

[30]. Ramezani, H., 2009. Effect of different protein and energy levels on growth performance of Caspian brown trout, Salmo trutta caspius (Kessler, 1877). Fisheries and aquatic sciencs 4, 203-209.

[31]. Tewary, A., and Patra, B. C., 2008. Use of vitamin C as an immunostimulant. Effect on growth, nutritional quality, and immune response of Labeo rohita (Ham.). Fish physiology and biochemistry 34, 251-9.

[32]. Tocher, D. R., Mourente, G., Eecken, A. V., Evjemo J. O., Diaz, E., Bell, J. G., Geurden., Lavens, P and Olsen, Y., 2002. Effects of dietary vitamin E on antioxidant defence mechanisms of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L), halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) and sea bream ( Sparus aurata L.). Aquaculture Nutrition 8, 195-207.

[33]. Verlhac, V and  Gabaudan, J., 1999. The effect of vitamin C on fish health. Centre for Research in Animal Nutrition, Société Chimique Roche, BP 170, 68305 Saint-Louis Cedex, France: 33 p.

[34]. Worthington Enzyme Manual., 1993. Superoxide Dismutase. Worthington Biochemical Corp., Freehold, NJ, 368–369 p.

[35]. Witerbourn,C., Hawkins R.E., Brian M. and Correll R.W., 1975. The estimation of red cell superoxide dismutase activity. Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 85, 337–341.

[36]. Xiao, L. D., Mai, K. S., Ai, Q. H., Xu, W., Wang, X. J., Zhang, W. B and Liufu, Z. G., 2010. Dietary ascorbic acid requirement of cobia, Rachycentron canadum Linneaus. Aquaculture Nutrition 16, 582-589.