تأثیر دوره‌های نوری و شدت نور مختلف بر قابلیت تولید تخم، درصد تخم‌گشایی، زمان رسیدگی جنسی و نسبت جنسی در Acartia clausi

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زیست‌شناسی دریا، دانشکدة علوم پایه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد لاهیجان، لاهیجان، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد لاهیجان، لاهیجان، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه شیلات، دانشکدۀ علوم دامی و شیلات، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی صومعه سرا، دانشگاه گیلان، ایران

5 کارشناس گروه زیست‌شناسی دریا، دانشکدة علوم دریایی و اقیانوسی، پردیس دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این تحقیق بررسی تأثیر دوره‌ها و شدت نور متفاوت در قابلیت تولید تخم، درصد تخم‌گشایی، زمان رسیدگی جنسی و نسبت جنسی بالغان در گونةAcartia clausi  در شرایط آزمایشگاهی بوده است. این زئوپلانکتوناز سواحل استان مازندران به وسیلة تور پلانکتون‌گیر 100 میکرونی جمع‌آوری شد و آزمایش‌ها در پنج تیمار 24:00، 18:06، 12:12، 06:18، 00:24 روشنایی/ تاریکی و در دو شدت نوری 50 و 1000 لوکس انجام شدند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش‌ترین میزان تولید تخم در شدت 50 لوکس و در 18 ساعت روشنایی، به میزان 31/4±02/20 عدد و کم‌ترین آن در شدت 1000 لوکس و 24 ساعت تاریکی به میزان 15/2±15/8 عدد بوده است. بیش‌ترین درصد تخم‌گشایی نیز در شدت 1000 لوکس و در 18 ساعت روشنایی به میزان 1/7±08/83 درصد و کم‌ترین آن 7/2± 17 درصد و در تیمار تاریکی مطلق تعیین شد. در تیمارهای مختلف تخم‌های این گونه قابلیت تخم‌گشایی را داشته، اما با کاهش مدت زمان حضور نور درصد تخم‌گشایی کاهش یافته است. مدت زمان رسیدگی جنسی، طی‌کردن مراحل ناپلیوسی و کوپه‌پودیت در شدت 50 لوکس و در 24 ساعت روشنایی سریع‌تر بوده و مدت آن 2/1±5/9 روز تعیین شد. همچنین نسبت جنسی بالغان در تیمارهای مختلف اختلاف معنی‌دار آماری نداشته‌اند. بنابراین برای تولید تخم و درصد تخم‌گشایی بالاتر و زمان بلوغ کوتاه‌تر، بهترین شرایط شدت نور پایین و دورة نوری 18 ساعت تعیین شد و نور ممتد با شدت بالا و تاریکی مطلق نیز برای این گونه نامناسب تشخیص داده شده است.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of photoperiod and light intensity on egg production, hatching rate, maturity time and adult sex ratio in Acartia clausi

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamad reza Rahimbashar 1
  • Maryam Yahya zade 2
  • Abolgasem Esmaieli fereidooni 3
  • Majid Rasta 4
  • Hor Torabi jafroudi 5
1 - Assistant Prof. Department of Marine Biology , Faculty of science ,Islamic Azad university , lahijan branch, Iran
2 - MSc. ,Department of fishery, Faculty of Natural Resources, Islamic Azad university , lahijan branch, Iran
3 ssociate Prof. Department of fishery, Faculty of Fishery science and Natural Resources of Sary , Iran.
5 Department of Marine Biology , Faculty of Marine and Oceanic Sciences Campus, University of Mazandaran , Babolsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of photoperiod and light intensity on egg production and hatching rate in Acartia clausi in laboratory conditions. This zooplankton was collected from Caspian coastal waters of Mazandaran province by the use of a 100µ net. All tests were performed in five light treatments (photoperiod) namely 24:00, 18:06, 12:12, 06:18, 00:24 (light / dark), and two light intensities of 50 and 1000 lux. The results showed that the highest level of egg production was observed in 18 and 12 hours light treatment at low light intensity (50 Lux) 20/02±4/31, and the lowest level of  egg  production  was observed in 24 hours light  treatment at high light intensity (1000 Lux)8/15±2/15. The highest percentage of hatching was observed in the photoperiod of 18 hours light and high light intensity (83/08±7/1), and a lower percentage of hatching was observed in the treatment of darkness(17±2/7). Regarding the time for maturation this species reached to copepod it stage more quickly, and adult stag (there are this process in both high light intensity and low light intensity). About adult sex ratio there are not any signification  difference  between treatment.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acartia clausi
  • Caspian Sea
  • photoperiod
  • Light intensity
  • egg hatching
 

[1]Ambler, J.A., 1986. Effects of food quantity and quality on egg  production of Acartia tonsa Dana from East Lagoon, Galveston, Texas Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 23, 183–196.

[2]Anholt, B.R., Voordouw M.J., 2002. Environmental sex determination in a splash pool copepod. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 76, 511–520.

[3]Avery, D.E., 2005. Induction of embryonic dormancy in the Calanoid copepod Acartia hudsonica: proximal cues and variation among individuals. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 314, 203–214.

[4] Belmonte, G., Potenza, D., 2001. Biogeography of the family Acartiidae (Calanoida) in the Ponto-Mediterranean Province. In Copepoda: Developments in Ecology, Biology and Systematics (pp. 171-176). Springer Netherlands.

[5]Buikema, A.L., 1973. Some effects of light on the growth, molting, reproduction and survival of the Cladoceran, Daphnia pulex, Hydrobiologia 41 . pp. 391–418.

[6]Camus T., Zeng C., 2008. Effects of photoperiod on egg production and hatching success, naupliar and copepodite development, adult sex ratio and life expectancy of the tropical calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis :Aquaculture 280 , 220–226.

[7] Carlotti F., Rey C., Javanshir A., Nival S. 1997; Laboratory studies on egg and faecal pellet production of  Centropages typicus: effect of age, effect of temperature, individual variability; J. Plankton Research; 1997; 19: 1143–1165.

[8]Castro-Longoria,  E., Williams J.A., 1999. The production of subitaneous and diapause eggs: a reproductive strategy for Acartia bifilosa (Copepoda: Calanoida) in Southhampton water UK. J.Plankton Res. 21, 65–84.

[9]Cervetto, G., Gaudy R., Pagano M., 1999. Influence of salinity on the distribution of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda Calanoida). J.Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 239, 33–45.

[10]Chen, Q., Sheng, J., Lin, Q., Gao, Y., Lv, J.,  2006. Effect of salinity on reproduction and survival of the copepod Pseudondiaptomus annandalei Sezell, 1919. Aquaculture 258, 575–582.

[11]Chinnery, F.E., Williams J.A., 2003. Photoperiod and temperature regulation of diapause egg production in Acartia bifilosa from Southampton water. Mar. Ecol. Prog.

[12] Farhadian, A., 2011.Gruth and production in copepod cyclopoid  Microcyclops  varicans. journal  of biology of Iran,Vol.24,No.4,549-557.

  [13] Gilbert, J.J., Williamson C.E., 1983. Sexual dimorphism in zooplankton (copepoda, cladocera and rotifera). Ann. Rev. Ecology. Syst. 14, 1–33.

[14]Hairston, N.G., Kearns C.M., 1995. The interaction of photoperiod and temperature in diapause timing: a copepod example. Biol. Bull. 189, 42–48

[15]Hazel, M.P., Fatimah Y., Mohamed S., Aziz A., 2005. Effects of some environmental parameters on the reproduction and development of a tropical marine harpacticoid copepod Nitocra affinis f. californica Lang. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51 , 722–728

[16] Holste, L., Peck, M. A., 2006. The effects of temperature and salinity on egg production and hatching success of Baltic Acartia tonsa (Copepoda: Calanoida): a laboratory investigation. Marine Biology, 148(5), 1061-1070.

[17]Koski,M., 1999. feeding and production of common planktonic copepods: the effect of food and temperetur. Helsinki University .Finland. P:35.

[18]Lee, C.-S., O'Bryen, P., Marcus, N.H., 2005. Copepods in Aquaculture. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, p. 288.

[19]Marcus, N.H., 2005. Calanoid copepods, resting  eggs, and aquaculture. In: Lee, C.-S., O'Bryen, P.J., Marcus, N.H. (Eds.), Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell Scientific Publication Ltd,Melbourne, pp. 3–9.

[20]McEvoy, L., Naess T., Bell J.G., Lie O., 1998. Lipid and fatty acid composition of normal and malpigmented Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus  hippoglossus) fed enriched Artemia: a comparisonwith fry fed wild copepods. Aquaculture 163, 235–248.

[21]Milion, H., 1992. Effects of light (photoperiod, spectral composition) on the population dynamics of Tisbe holo thuriae Humes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida), Hydrobiologia 232 (1992), pp. 201–209

[22]Munk, P., Nielsen T.G., 1994. Tropho dynamics of the plankton Community at Dogger Bank: predatory impact by larval fish. J. Plankton Res. 16, 1225–1245.

[23]Nanton, D.A., Castell, J.D., 1999. The effects of temperature and dietary Fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of harpacticoid copepods, for Use as live food for marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 175, 167–181.

[24]Omori, M., Ikeda, T., 1984. Methods in zooplankton ecology. John Wiley and Sons Inc.,New York, 332P.

[25] Payne, M. F., Rippingale, R. J., 2001. Effects of salinity, cold storage and enrichment on the calanoid copepod< i> Gladioferens imparipes</i>. Aquaculture, 201(3), 251-262.

[26]Peck, M.A., Holste L., 2006. Effects of salinity, photoperiod and adult stocking density on egg production and egg hatchingsuccess in Acartia tonsa (Calanoida: Copepoda): Optimizingintensive cultures. Aquaculture 255(2006) 341-350.

[27]Pepin, P., Penney R.W., 1997. Patterns of prey size and taxonomic Composition in larval fish: are there general size dependent models? J. Fish Biol. 51, 84–100.

[28]Rodriguez ,V., Guerrero F., Bautista B., 1995. Egg production of individual copepods of Acartia grani Sars from coastal waters: seasonal and diel variability. J. PlanktonRes.17, 2233–2250.

[29]Sargent, J.R., Falk-Petersen S.,1988. The lipid biochemistry of calanoid copepods. Hydrobiologia 167/168, 101–114.

[29]Savas, S., and Erdogan, O., 2006. The effect of food (Scendesmus acuminatus (Von Lagerheim)R.H. Chodat) densities and temperature on the population growth of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia quadrangula .Muller, 1785. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 23:113-116.

[30]Schipp,G.R.,Bosmans,J.M.P.,Marshall,A.J.,1999.A method for hatchery culture of tropical Calanoid copepods,Acartia spp.Aquaculture,174:81-88.

[31] Sergestråle, S.G., 1970. Light control of the reproductive cycle of Pontoporeia affinis Lindstrom (Crusteceana: Amphipoda), Journal ofExperimental marine Biology and Ecology 5 (1970), pp. 272–275.

[32] Shields, R. J., J. G. Bell, F. S. Luizi, B. Gara, N. R. Bromage and J. R. Sargent, 1999. Natural copepods are superior to enriched Artemia nauplii as feed for halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) in terms of survival, pigmentation, and retinal morphology: relation to dietary essential fatty acids. Journal ofNutrition 129:1186-1194.

[33]Stearns ,D.E., Tester P.A., Walker R.L., 1989. Diel changes in the egg production rate of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda Calanoida) and related environmental factors in two estuaries. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.52,7–16.

[34]Støttrup, J., 2003. Production and nutritional value of copepods. In: Støttrup J., McEvoy L.A. (Eds.), Live Feeds in Marin Aquaculture. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 145–205.

[35] Stottrup,J,G., and McEvoy,J.A., 2003. Live feeds In marine aquaculture. Aquaculture Nutrition. Blsckwell Science. 318p.

[36]Svåsand, T., Kristiansen T.S., Pedersen T., Salvanes A.G.V., Engelsen R., Nødtvedt M., 1998. Havbeite med torsk artsrapportNorges forskningsråd. 78 pp.

[37]Toledo J.D., Golez M.S., Doi M., Ohno A.,  1999. Use of copepod nauplii during early feeding stage of grouper Epinepheluscoiodes. Fish. Sci. 65, 390–397.