رشد و تغییرات بیوشیمی بدن بچه‌ماهی سفید دریای خزر (Rutilus frissii Kutum) تحت تأثیر سطوح مختلف پروتئین و چربی جیره

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد،گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، صومعه‌سرا، ایران

2 استاد،گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، صومعه‌سرا، ایران

3 استادیار،گروه شیلات، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، صومعه‌سرا، ایران

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور بررسی تأثیرات سطوح مختلف پروتئین (40، 35 و 30 درصد) و چربی (14، 12 و 10 درصد) در عملکرد رشد و تغییرات فیزیولوژیک بچه‌ماهی سفید دریای خزر (Rutilus frisii kutum) انجام شد. 675 ماهی (01/0 ± 15/1 گرم) در 27 آکواریوم 45 لیتری توزیع و به مدت 8 هفته در 4 وعدة غذایی غذادهی شدند. تقابل بین پروتئین و چربی تفاوت معنی‌داری در هیچ‌یک از عوامل رشد ایجاد نکرد (05/0>  P). نتایج نشان داد به‌کارگیری پروتئین تا سطح 35 درصد موجب افزایش برخی از شاخص‌های رشد از جمله وزن نهایی و افزایش وزن شده است (05/0 >P ). بهترین عملکرد رشد در ماهیان تغذیه‌شده با جیره‌های حاوی 14 درصد چربی مشاهده شد (05/0 >P). بازده پروتئین و گلوکز تحت تأثیر تقابل بین پروتئین و چربی جیره قرار نگرفتند (05/0>  P). میزان تری‌گلیسرید و کلسترول به طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر پروتئین و چربی و تقابل بین این دو قرار گرفت (05/0 >P )، بالاترین میزان تری‌گلیسرید در ماهیان تغذیه‌شده با 30 درصد پروتئین و 10 و 12 درصد چربی و بیش‌ترین میزان کلسترول در ماهیان تغذیه‌شده با 40 درصد پروتئین به همراه 12 و 14 درصد چربی مشاهده شد. نتایج مطالعة حاضر نشان می‌دهد که پروتئین کم‌تر (30 درصد) و بیش‌تر (40 درصد) از حد نیاز ماهی سفید می‌تواند تأثیرات منفی در رشد و پارامترهای فیزیولوژیک داشته باشد و افزایش سطح چربی تا 14 درصد اثر منفی در پارامترهای رشد بچه‌ماهیان سفید نداشت. به منظور عملکرد بهتر ماهی سفید در این محدودة سنی جیره‌ای با 35 درصد پروتئین و 14 درصد چربی پیشنهاد می‌شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Growth and biochemistry changes of Caspian Kutum (Rutilus frissi kutum) under different levels of dietary protein and lipid

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Mahmoodi 1
  • Bahram Falahatkar 2
  • Hamid Alaf Noverian 3
  • Majid Reza Khoshkholgh 3
1 M.s.c. Educated, Fisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Resources University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran
2 Profesor, Fisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Resources University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran
3 Professor, Fisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary protein (30, 35, 40%) and lipid levels (10, 12, 14%) on growth performance and physiological changes of juveniles Caspian Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum). Six hundred and seventy five fish (1.15 ± 0.01 g) were distributed into 27 aquaria (45 L) and were fed four times daily for 8 weeks. Interaction between protein and lipid did not significantly affect the growth factors (p > 0.05). Results showed that increasing the level of protein to 35% significantly increase some growth indices such as final weight (WF), weight gain (WG). The best growth performance was observed in fish 14% dietary lipid. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) and glucose of fish was not affected by interaction dietary protein and dietary lipid level. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly affected by protein and lipid and the interaction, High levels of triglycerides in fish fed with 30% protein and 10% and 12% lipid and the maximum amount of cholesterol in fish fed with 40% protein and 12% and 14% lipid were observed. The results of this study show a lower protein content (30%) and older (40%) than Kutum need can be a negative influence on the growth and physiological
parameters. Increasing dietary lipid to 14% of Kutum juveniles were no negative effects on growth parameters. In order to improve the performance of Kutum in this weight range fed diets with 35% protein and 14% lipid is suggested.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Growth
  • protein
  • Lipid
  • Caspian kutum
 

  1. Abdel-Tawwab, M., Ahmad, M., Khattab, Y.A.E., Shalaby, A.M.E., 2010. Effect of dietary protein level, initial body weight, and their interaction on the growth, feed utilization, and physiological alterations of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquaculture 298, 267-274.
  2. Abdoli, A., 1999. The Inland water fishes of Iran. Museum of Nature and Wildlife, Tehran, 378p. (in Persian)
  3. Abdolmaleki, S.H., 2006. Trends in stocks fluctuation of Rutilus frissi kutum in Caspian Sea. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal 15, 87-100. (in Persian)
  4. Adamidou, S., Rigos, G., Mente, E., Nengas, I., Fountoulaki, E., 2011. The effects of dietary lipid and fibre levels on digestibility of diet and on the growth performance of sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo). Mediterranean Marine Science 12, 401-412.
  5. Ahmad, M.H., 2008. Response of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, to different dietary protein and lipid levels in practical diets. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 39, 541-548.
  6. AOAC., 1990. Official Methods Analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th edn. Published by the Association of Analytical Chemists, USA, 2220p.
  7. Aranguren, L.F., Brinez, B., Aragon, L., Platz, C., Caraballo, X., Suarez, S., Salazar, M., 2006. Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) infected Penaeus vannamei female broodstock: Effect on reproductive parameters, nauplii and larvae quality. Aquaculture 258, 337-343.
  8. Azevedo, O.A., Bureau, D.P., Leeson, S., Cho, C.Y., 2002. Growth and efficiency of feed usage by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets with different dietary protein: energy at two feeding levels. Fisheries Science 68, 878-888.
  9. Borba, M.R., Fracalossi, D.M.D., Pezzato, L.E., Menoyo, D., Bautista, J.M., 2003. Growth, lipogenesis and body composition of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus) fingerlings fed different dietary protein and lipid concentrations. Aquatic Living Resources 16, 362-369.
  10. Boujard, T., Tineau, A.G., Cove, D., Corraze, G.V., Dutto, G., Gasset, H., Kaushik, S., 2004. Regulation of feed intake, growth, nutrient and energy utilisation in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed high fat diets. Aquaculture 231, 529-545.
  11. Cameron, C., Gurure, R., Reddy, K., Moccia, R., Leatherland, J., 2002. Correlation between dietary lipid: protein ratios and plasma growth and thyroid hormone levels in juvenile Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus). Aquaculture Research 33, 383-394.
  12. Carmichael, B., Kouakou, B., Gelaye, S., Kannan, G., Lee, J.H., Terrill, T.H., 2012. Organ mass and composition in growing dairy goat wethers fed different levels of poultry fat and protein. Small Ruminant Research 104, 104-113.
  13. Ann Cheng, Ch., Chia Yung, Ch., Chyng Hwa, L., Ching Fong, Ch., 2006. Effects of dietary protein and lipids on blood parameters and superoxide anion production in the grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae: Epinephelinae). Zoological Studies45, 492-502.
  14. Cho, C.Y., Kaushik, S.J., 1990. Nutritional energetics in fish: energy and protein utilization in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 61,132-172.
  15. Chou, B.S., Shiau, S.Y., 1996. Optimal dietary lipid level for growth of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus. Aquaculture 143, 185-195.
  16. Cnaani, A., Tinman, S., Avidar, Y., Ron, M., Hulata, G., 2004. Comparative study of biochemical parameters in response to stress in Oreochomis aureus, O. mossambicus and two strains of O. niloticus. Aquaculture Research 35, 1434-1440
  17. Countinho, F., Peres, H., Guerreiro, I., Pousao-Ferreira, P., Oliva-Teles, A., 2012. Dietary protein requirement of sharp snout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo, Cetti1777) juveniles. Aquaculture 356-357, 391-397.
  18. Dabrowski, K., 1977. Protein requirements of grass carp fry (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquaculture 12, 63-73.
  19. Dein, F.J., 1986. Hematology. In: Harisson G.J., Harisson L.R. (Eds.), Clinical Avian Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp. 174-191.
  20. Du, Z.Y., Liu, Y.J., Tian, L.X., Wang, J.T., Wang, Y., Liang, G.Y., 2005. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, Feed composition and body composition by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquaculture Nutrition 11, 139-146.
  21. Ebrahimi, G., Ouraji, H., 2011. Dietary lipid requirement for the kutum fingerlings, Rutilus frissi kutum (Kamenskii 1901). Research Journal of Animal Sciences 5, 1-5.
  22. Ergun, S., Guroy, D., Tekesoglu, H., Guroy, B., Celik, I., Tekinay, A., Bulut, M., 2010. Optimum Dietary Protein Level for Blue Streak Hap, Labidochromis Caeruleus. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 10, 27-31.
  23. Falahatkar, B., Mohammadi, H., Noveirian, H., 2012. Effects of different starter diets on growth indices of Caspian Kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum larvae. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Science 11, 28-36.
  24. Garling, D.L., Wilson, R.P., 1976. Optimum dietary protein to energy ratio for channel catfish fingerlings, Ictalurus punctatus. Journal of Nutrition 106, 1368-1375.
  25. Ghorbanzade, R.A., Nazari, S., 2014. Statistical Yearbook of Iran Fisheries Organization 2002-2012. Iranian Fisheries Organization, Tehran, 64p. (in Persian)
  26. Giri, S.S., Sahoo, S.K., Sahu, B.B., Sahu, B.B., Mohanty, S.N., Mukhopadhyay, P.K., Ayyappan, S., 2002. Larval survival and growth in Wallago attu (Bloch and Schneider): effects of light, photoperiod and feeding regimes. Aquaculture 213, 151-161.
  27. Guo, Z.N., Zhu, X.O., Liu, J.Sh., Hn, D., Yang, Y., Lan, Z., Xie, Sh. 2012. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance, nitrogen and energy budget of juvenile hybrid sturgeon, Acipenser baerii× A. gueldenstaedtii ♂. Aquaculture 89-95, 338-341.
  28. Hernandez, M.D., Egea, M.A., Rueda, F.M., Aguado, F., Martinez, F.J., Garcia, B., 2001. Effect of commercial diet with different P/E ratios on sharpsnout seabream (Dipodus puntazzo) Growth and nutrition utilization. Aquaculture 195, 321-329.
  29. Kim, J.D., Lall, S.P., 2001. Effects of dietary protein level on growth and utilization of protein and energy by juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Aquaculture 195, 311-319.
  30. Li, X.F., Liu, W.B., Jiang, Y.Y., Zhub, H., Gec, X.P., 2010. Effects dietary protein and lipid levels in practical diets on growth performance and body composition of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fingerlings. Aquaculture 303, 65-70.
  31. Lin, Y.H., Shiau, S.Y., 2003. Dietary lipid requirement of grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, and effects on immune response. Aquaculture 225, 243-250.
  32. 33.       Lopez, L.M., Torres, A.L., Durazo, E., Drawbridge, M., Bureau, D.P., 2006. Effect of lipid on growth and feed utilization of white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) fingerlings. Aquaculture 253, 557-563.
  33. Matter, F., Peganova, S., Eder, K., 2004. Lipid concentrations of fillets, liver, plasma and lipoproteins of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822), fed diets with varying protein concentrations. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 88, 275-287.
  34. McGoogan, B.B., Gatlin, D.M., 1999. Dietary manipulations affecting growth and nitrogenous waste production of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus: I. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels. Aquaculture 178, 333-348.
  35. Miller, C.L., Davis, D.A., Phelps, R.P., 2005. The effects of dietary protein and lipid on growth and body composition of juvenile and sub-adult red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Poey, 1860). Aquaculture Research 36, 52-60.
  36. Mohammadzadeh, S., Noverian, H., Ouraji, H., Falahatkar, B., 2013. Effects of dietary carbohydrate levels on growth, survival and body composition in Caspian Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamenskii, 1901). Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal 21, 85-94.(in persian)
  37. Mohanta, K.N., Mohanty, S.N., Jena, J.K., Sahu, N.P., 2008. Protein requirement of silver barb, Puntius gonionotus fingerling. Aquaculture Nutrition 14, 143-152.
  38. National Research Council (NRC)., 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, 114p.
  39. Noverian, H.A., Mostafazadeh, S., Toluei, M.H., 2005. A study on various protein levels on growth indices (SR, WG, RGR, FCR and PER) of Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamenskii 1901(Advanced fry). Pajouhesh & Sazandegi 68, 61-68. (in Persian).
  40. Noverian, H.A., Shabanipour, N., Zamani Kia Sajmahalleh, H.A., Khadem, H., 2007. The effect of different level of lipids on growth Index of Caspian frisii kutum (Fry stage) (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamenskii, 1901) Utilizing Semi-purified diets. Pajouhsh & Sazandegi 76, 35-42. (in Persian).
  41. Ogata, H.Y., Shearer, K.D., 2000. Influence of dietary fat and adiposity on feed intake of juvenile red sea bream (Pagrus major). Aquaculture 189, 237-249.
  42. Ozorio, R.O.A., Valente, L.M.P., Correia, S., Pousao-Ferreira, P., Damasceno-Oliveira, A., Escorcio, C., Oliva-Teles, A., 2009. Protein requirement for maintenance and maximum growth of two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris) juveniles. Aquaculture Nutrition 15, 85-93.
  43. Peres, H., Olivia-Teles, A., 1999. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth performance and feed utilization by juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture179, 325-334.
  44. Refstie, S., Storebakken, T., Baeverfjord, G., Roem, A.J., 2001. Long term protein and lipid growth of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets with partial replacement of fish meal by soy proteins products at medium or high lipid level. Aquaculture 193, 91-106.
  45. Rosebrough, R.W., McMurtry, J.P., Vasilatos-Younken, R., 1999. Dietary fat and protein interactions in the broiler. Poultry Science 78, 992-998.
  46. Santiago, C.B., Reyes, O.S., 1991. Optimum dietary protein level for growth of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fry in a static water system. Aquaculture 93, 155-165.
  47. Sen, P.R., Rao, N.G.S., Ghosh, S.R., Rout, M., 1978. Observation on the protein and carbohydrate requirements of carps. Aquaculture 13, 245-255.
  48. Serrano, I., Nematipour, G.L., Gatlin, D.M., 1992. Dietary protein requirement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and the relative use of dietary carbohydrate and lipid. Aquaculture 101, 283-291.
  49. Shalaby, S.M., El-Dakar, A.Y., Wahbi, O.M., Saoud, I.M., 2011. Growth, feed utilization and body composition of white sea bream, Diplodus sargus juveniles offered diets with various protein and energy levels. Marine Science 22, 3-17.
  50. Shiau, S., Peng, C., 1993. Protein sparing effect by carbohydrate in diets for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus×O. aureus. Aquaculture 117, 327-334.
  51. Talebi Haghighi, D., 2006. Embryonic development and nutritional requirements of kutum fry, Rutilus frisii kutum. PhD thesis. Putra University. Kuala Lumpur, The Malaysia, 198p.
  52. Thoman, E.S., Davis, D.A., Arnold, C.R., 1999. Evaluation of grow out with varying protein and energy levels for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture 176, 343-353.
  53. Tocher, D.R., 2003. Metabolism and functions of lipid and fatty acid in teleost fish. Review in Fisheries Science 11, 107-184.
  54. Volek, J.S., Sharman, M.J., Gomez, A.L., Scheett, T.P., Kraemer, W.J., 2003. An isoenergetic very low carbohydrate diet improves serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and postprandial pipemic responses compared with a low fat diet in normal weight, normolipidemic women. Journal of Nutrition 133, 2756-2761.
  55. Webster, A.H., Lim, C.E., 2002 Nutrition Requirements and Feeding of Finfish for Aquaculture. CAB International, New York, 421p.
  56. Williams, K.C., Barlow, C.G., Rodgers, L., Hockings, I., Agcopra, C., Ruscoe, I., 2003. Asian seabass Lates calcarifer perform well when fed pelleted diets high in protein and lipid. Aquaculture 225, 191-206.
  57. Winfree, R.A., Stickney, R.R., 1981. Effects of dietary protein and energy on growth, feed conversion efficiency and body composition of Tilapia aurea. Journal of Nutrition 111, 1001-1012.
  58. Yeh, Y.Y., Leveille, J.A., 1969. Effect of dietary protein on hepatic lipogenesis in the growing chick. Journal of Nutrition 98, 356-366.

19.       De Almeida Bicudo, A.J., Sado, R.Y., Cyrino, J.E.P., 2009. Growth and haematology of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, fed diets with varying protein to energy ratio. Aquaculture Research 40, 486-495.