بررسی غلظتهای مختلف یونهای سدیم و پتاسیم بر شدت فعالیت آنزیم Na/K-ATPase و شاخص‌های کیفی لارو در مراحل مختلف لاروی میگوی بزرگ آب شیرین (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1. استادیار گروه مهندسی شیلات دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 2. استاد گروه مهندسی شیلات دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در مراحل اولیة لاروی میگوی بزرگ آب شیرین دستگاه تنظیم اسمزی هنوز شکل نگرفته است و تنظیم اسمزی و یونی بدن عمدتاً مربوط به فعالیت‌های آنزیم Na/K-ATPase با مصرف ATP می باشد. به همین دلیل در چرخة زیست طبیعی، مراحل لاروی باید در آبهای لب‌شور نزدیک مناطق مصبی با شرایط مشابه اسمزی ایزوتونیک بدن لارو با حداقل مصرف ATP و حداکثر بازماندگی سپری شود. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی تأثیر غلظت‌های مختلف سدیم و پتاسیم در آب مرکز تکثیر، بر شدت فعالیت آنزیم Na/K-ATPase، شاخص کیفی لارو (LCI) و بازماندگی در مراحل 1، 4، 7 و 11 لاروی میگوی بزرگ آب شیرین انجام گردید. برای این تحقیق، از ترکیب پایة آب لب‌شور مصنوعی نیو (شوری 12 گرم در لیتر) استفاده شد و دو آزمایش در مخازن 100 لیتری با تراکم اولیة 200 لارو در لیتر انجام گردید. در آزمایش اول، چهار تیمار 100، 150، 200 و 250 میلی‌گرم در لیتر پتاسیم با استفاده از نمک کلرید پتاسیم و در آزمایش دوم، چهار تیمار 2000، 3000، 4000 و 5000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر سدیم با استفاده از نمک کلرید سدیم هر کدام با سه تکرار فراهم شد. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، کیفیت لارو میگوی بزرگ آب شیرین بر اساس شدت فعالیت آنزیم Na/K-ATPase شاخص بهتری نسبت به شاخص کیفی لارو و بازماندگی لاروها می‌باشد. نتایج نشان داد که شرایط ایزوتونیک و حداقل فعالیت آنزیم Na/K-ATPase در مراحل 1 و 4 لاروی و مراحل 7 و  11 لاروی به ترتیب 4000 و 3000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر سدیم و 150 میلی‌گرم درلیتر پتاسیم برای هر چهار مرحلة لاروی می‌باشد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Various Sodium and Potassium Concentrations Mediums on Na/K-Atpase Activity and Condition Indices at Different Larval Stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kamran Rezaei Tavabe1* 1
  • Gholamreza Rafiee2 2
1 1. Assistant Professor, Fisheries Department, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran
2 2. Professor, Fisheries Department, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Macrobrachium rosenbergii lifecycle is unique so that the adults thrive in freshwater and larval development requires brackish water environments near to estuaries as close as possible to larval body isosmotic for minimum Na/K-ATPase activity and maximum ATP storage. Osmoregulation system at early larval stages is not formed and larval osmoregulation is mainly attributed to Na/K-ATPase activity. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of various sodium and potassium concentrations on Na/K-ATPase activity, larval condition index (LCI) and survival rate of M. rosenbergii at 1st, 4th, 7th and 11th larval stages. Triplicate treatments of Sodium (2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm) and potassium (100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm) were prepared separately in tanks (100‑L) and initial larvae density was fixed 200 larvae L-1. The treatments were set up at 12 ppt salinity based on New artificial brackish water composition. To adjust desired concentrations of sodium and potassium for the treatments, their soluble salts, including NaCl and KCl, were used. The results indicated that evaluation of the freshwater prawn larval quality according to Na/K-ATPase activity is a better index than LCI and survival rate. The results also showed that isotonic condition and minimum Na/K-ATPase activity at 1st and 4th larval stages and 7th and 11th stages occurred respectively in 4000 and 3000 ppm sodium treatments but this index for potassium treatments was 150 ppm for the all larval stages.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Freshwater Prawn
  • Na/K-ATPase Activity
  • Larval Condition Index
  • Osmoregulation
  • Isotonic
Armstrong, D.A., Stephenson, M.J., Knight, A.W., 1976. Acute toxicity of nitrite to larvae of the giant Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture 9, 39-46.

Augusto, A., Pinheiro, A.S., Greene, L.J., Laure, H.J., McNamara, J.C., 2009. Evolutionary transition to freshwater by ancestral marine Palaemonids: evidence from osmoregulation in a tide pool shrimp. Aquatic Biology 7, 113-122.

Cavalli, R.O., Lavens, P., Sorgeloos, P., 2001. Reproductive performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii females in captivity. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 32, 60-67.

Cheng, W., Liu, C.H., Cheng, C.H., Chen, J.C., 2003. Osmolality and ion balance in giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii subjected to changes in salinity: role of sex, Aquaculture Research 34, 555-560.

Funge-Smith, S.J., Taylor, A.C., Whitley, J., Brown, J.H., 1995. Osmotic and ionic regulation in the giant Malaysian fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), with special reference to strontium and bromine. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology
Part A: Physiology 110, 357-365.

Houng, D.T.T., Wang, T., Bayley, M., Phuong, N.T., 2010. Osmoregulation, growth and

moulting cycles of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) at different salinities. Aquaculture Research 41, 135-143.

Huong, D.T.T., Jayasankar, V., Jasmani, S., Saido-Sakanaka, H., Wigginton, A.J., Wilder, M.N., 2004. Na/K-ATPase activity during larval development in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the effects of salinity on survival rates. Fisheries Science 70, 518-520.

Leone, F., Masui, D., Souza Bezerra, T., Garçon, D., Valenti, W., Augusto, A., McNamara, J., 2012. Kinetic Analysis of Gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase Activity in Selected Ontogenetic Stages of the Amazon River Shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): Interactions at ATP- and Cation-Binding Sites. The Journal of Membrane Biology 245, 201-215.

Lucu, Č., Towle, D.W., 2003. Na+K+-ATPase in gills of aquatic crustacea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology 135, 195-214.

Menasveta, P.,  Piyatiratitivokul, S., 1980. A comparative study on larviculture techniques for the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man). Aquaculture 20, 239-249.

New, M.B., 2000. Commercial freshwater prawn farming around the world. In: New, M.B., Valenti, W.C. (Eds.), Freshwater prawn culture: the farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science. Oxford, England, pp. 290–325.

New, MB., 2002. Farming Freshwater Prawns a Manual for Culture of the Giant River Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). FAO publication. Rome, 212 p.

New, MB., 2004. Farming freshwater Prawns a manual for culture of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Aquaculture 231, 597-600.

New, M.B., 2005. Freshwater prawn farming: global status, recent research and a glance at the future. Aquaculture Research 36, 210-230.

Nhan, D.T., Wille, M., Hung, L.T., Sargeloos, P., 2009. Compersion of reproductive performance and offspring quality of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock from different regions. Aquaculture 298, 36-42.

Palacios, E., Bonilla, A., Luna, D., Racotta, I.S., 2004. Survival, Na+/K+-ATPase and lipid responses to salinity challenge in fed and starved white pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) postlarvae. Aquaculture 234, 497-511.

Pequeux, A., 1995. Osmotic regulation in crustacean. Journal of Crustacean Biology 15, 1-60.   

Racotta, I.S., Palacios, E., Ibarra, A.M., 2003. Shrimp larval quality in relation to broodstock condition. Aquaculture 227, 107-130.

Rainbow, P.S., 1997. Ecophysiology of trace metal uptake in Crustaceans. Esturine, Coastal and Shelf Science 44, 169-175.

Santos, L.C.F., Belli, N.M., Augusto, A., Masui, D.C., Leone, F.A., McNamara, J.C., Furriel, R.P.M., 2007. Gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase in diadromous, freshwater palaemonid shrimps: Species-specific kinetic characteristics and α-subunit expression. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology 148, 178-188.

Stern, S., Borut, A., Cohen, D., 1987. Osmotic and ionic regulation of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DeMan). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 86A, 373-379.

Tayamen, M., Brown, J.H., 1999. A condition index for evaluating larval quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879). Aquaculture Research 30, 917-922.

Towle, D.W., Palmer, G.E., Harris, J.L. III, 1976. Role of gill Na+/K+-dependent ATPase in acclimation of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) to low salinity. Journal of Experimental Zoology 196, 315–322.

VanHook, A.M., Patel, N.H., 2008. Crustaceans. Current Biology 18, R547-R550.

Wickins, J.F., Bread, T.W., 1974. Observations on the breeding and growth of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) in the laboratory. Aquaculture 3, 159-174.

Wilder, M.N., Ikuta, K., Atmomarsono, M., Hatta, T., Komuro, K., 1998. Changes in osmotic and ionic concentrations in the hemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to varying salinities and correlation to ionic and crystalline composition of the cuticle. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 119, 941-950.

Wilder, M.N., Thi Thanh Huong, D., Atmomarsono, M., Hien, T.T.T., Quoc Phu, T., Yang, W.-J., 2000. Characterization of Na/K-ATPase in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the effects of changing salinity on enzymatic activity. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology 125, 377-388.

Wilder, M.N., Huong, D.T.T., Jasmani, S., Jayasankar, V., Kaneko, T., Aida, K., Hatta, T., Nemoto, S., Wigginton, A., 2009. Hemolymph osmolality, ion concentrations and calcium in the structural organization of the cuticle of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Changes with the molt cycle. Aquaculture 292, 104-110.

Yen, P.T., Bart, A.N., 2008. Salinity effects on reproduction of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man). Aquaculture 280, 124-128.