اثرات سطوح مختلف پودر و عصاره الکلی یونجه (Medicago sativa) بر عملکرد رشد، تغذیه، بیوشیمیایی لاشه و برخی فاکتورهای بیوشیمیایی سرم خونی ماهی کپور معمولی (Cyprinus carpio

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1. دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد رشته تکثیر و پرورش آبزیان، گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دریا، دانشگاه علوم و فنون دریایی خرمشهر، خرمشهر، ایران

2 2. دانشیار، گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دریا، دانشگاه علوم و فنون دریایی خرمشهر، خرمشهر، ایران

3 3. استادیار، گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دریا، دانشگاه علوم و فنون دریایی خرمشهر، خرمشهر، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور بررسی تغییرات فاکتورهای رشد، تغذیه، بیوشیمیایی لاشه و برخی فاکتورهای بیوشیمیایی سرم خون کپور معمولی تغذیه شده با جیره حاوی سطوح مختلف پودر و عصاره الکلی گیاه یونجه، انجام گردید. طی این تحقیق 300 قطعه ماهی با وزن متوسط 19/0 ± 04/20 گرم و طول متوسط 64/0± 78/11 سانتی متر به مدت 8 هفته با 9 تیمار غذایی ساخته شده تغذیه شدند.تیمارهای غذایی ساخته شده شامل 4 تیمار غذایی با سطوح افزایشی پودر یونجه (سطوح 3، 6، 9 و 12 درصد)، 4 تیمار غذایی با سطوح افزایشی عصاره الکلی یونجه (سطوح 1، 2، 3 و 4 درصد) و یک تیمار غذایی بدون افزودن عصاره و پودر (به عنوان گروه کنترل) بودند. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده در پایان آزمایش، نتایج نشان داد که افزودن سطوح مختلف پودر یونجه تا میزان 9 درصد جیره و عصاره الکلی تا میزان 4 درصد جیره منجر به افزایش وزن بدن، درصد افزایش وزن بدن، ضریب رشد روزانه، نرخ رشد ویژه، ضریب چاقی، شاخص احشایی و کبدی، پروتئین و چربی لاشه، نسبت بازده غذایی، نسبت بازده پروتئین و چربی، پروتئین کل، گلوبولین،گلوکز و فسفر سرم با اختلاف معنی داری نسبت به تیمار شاهد منجر شده (05/0>P) و از طرف دیگر این تیمار ها در نسبت تبدیل غذایی، چربی محوطه شکمی، رطوبت لاشه، تری گلیسرید و کلسترول کاهش معنی داری  تیمار شاهد نشان دادند (05/0>P) اما اختلاف معنی داری بین شاخص های طول نسبی روده، کل غذای مصرفی، کربوهیدرات و خاکستر لاشه، آلبومین و کلسیم با تیمار شاهد مشاهده نشد (05/0<P). در این تحقیق شاخص نسبت تبدیل اقتصادی نیز محاسبه گردید و نتایج بهترین و اقتصادی ترین تیمار برای به کار گیری در تغذیه ماهی کپور تیمار 4 درصد عصاره و 9 درصد پودر بود. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده از این تحقیق و بهبود فاکتورهای رشد و تغذیه و همچنین افزایش سطوح سرمی پروتئین تام و گلوبولین از یک سو و کاهش مقادیر سرکی کلسترول و تری گلیسرید از سوی دیگر، و همچنین تاثیرات مثبت بر سطوح سرمی کلسیم و فسفر، یونجه را می توان به عنوان یک مکمل گیاهی مناسب جهت استفاده در جیره غذایی ماهی کپور معمولی، معرفی نمود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Different Levels of Meal and Alcoholic Extract of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) on Growth Performance, Nutrition, Carcass Biochemical and Some Serum Biochemical Parameters in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Falamarzi1 1
  • Seyed Mohammad Mousavi2* 2
  • Nasim Zanguee3 3
  • Nasim Zanguee3 3
1 1. MSc Student of Aquaculture, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural Resources, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran
2 2. Associate Professor, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural Resources, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran
3 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural Resources, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran
چکیده [English]

This research was conducted to evaluate alteration of growth performance, nutrition, carcass and some serum biochemical parameters of common carp fed the diets supplemented by different levels of meal and alcoholic extract of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In this research, 300 fish (mean weight: 20.4 ± 0.19 g and mean length: 11.78 ± 0.64 cm) were fed by nine nutritional diets for 8 weeks. Nutritional treatments were four treatment groups which had increasing levels of alfalfa meal (3, 6, 9 and 12 percent), four treatment groups with increasing levels of alfalfa extract (1, 2, 3 and 4 percent) and one control group (without any meal or extract). Based on the results, adding 9 percent of alfalfa meal and 4 percent alcoholic extract to the diets of examined fish, increased significantly weight gain (WG), body weight gain percent (BWG%), daily  growth  ratio (DGR), specific  growth  ratio  (SGR), condition factor (CF), hepato somatic index (HIS), and viscero somatic index (VSI), feed efficiency ratio (FER), protein efficiency ratio (PER), carcass protein and lipid and blood serum levels of total protein (TP), globulin (GLUB), glucose (GLUC) and phosphorus (PHOS) in comparison with the control group (P<0.05). On the other hand, those treatments, indicated a significantly-decreasing trend in feed conversion ratio (FCR), intraperitoneal fat ratio (IFR), carcass moisture, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), in comparison with the control group (P<0.05). There was not any significant difference between experimental treatments for relative length gut (RLG), total feed intake (TFI), and carcass carbohydrate and ash and serum albumin (ALB) and calcium (Ca) levels (P>0.05). Based on the results and calculation of economical index, the most economic and the best treatment was 4% of alcoholic extract and 9 % of alfalfa meal for diets of Cyprinus carpio.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alfalfa
  • growth performance
  • Nutrition
  • Carcass Biochemical
  • Serum Biochemical Parameters
  • common carp
Aberoumad, A., Pourshafi, K., 2010. Chemical and proximate composition properties of different fish species obtained from Iran. World Journal of Fish Marine Science 2(3): 237.239.

Abdel-Latif, S.A.A., El-Yamany, A.T., Edaly, E.A.F., 2004. Evaluation of using different levels and sources of medicinal herbs in growing Japanese quail diets. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds 7, 69-81.

Akiba, Y., Matsumoto, T., 1982. Effects of dietary fibers on lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue in chicks. Journal of Nutrition 112, 1577-1585.

Al Gaby, A.M.M., 1992. Biochemical studies on Egyptian Nigella sativa L. oils. Egyptian Journal of Applied Sciences 7(5), 739-748.

Ali, M.Z., Jauncey, K., 2005. Approaches to optimizing dietary protein to energy ratio for African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Aquacture Nutrition 11,95-101.

Amar, E. C., Kiron, V., Satoh, S., Watanabe,


T., 2001. Influence of various dietary
synthetic carotenoids on bio-defence mechanism in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Aquaculture Research 32: 162-173.

Artiss, J.D., Zak, B., 1997. Measurment of cholesterol concentration. In: Warnick GR and Dominicazak MH, Handbook of lipoprotein testing, Washington, AA CC Press, 99-114.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)., 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.16th Edition, Arlington, VA, USA.

Barham, D., Trinder, P., 1972. An Improved Colour Reagent for the Determination of Blood Glucose by the Oxidase System. Analyst 97, 142-145.

Bauer, P.J., 1981. Affinity and stochiometry of calcium binding by arsenazo III. Analytical Biochemistry 110, 61-72.

Ben Aziz, A., Grossman, S., Budowski, P., Ascarelli, I. and Bondi, A. 2006. Antioxidant properties of lucerne extracts. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 19(10), 605-608.

Bolasina, S.N., Fenucci, J.L., 2007. Effect of dirtary lipid level on growth, survival and body composition of Brazilian codling (Urophycis brasiliensis  Kaup, 1858). Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia 42, 23-27.

Brauge, C., Corraze G., Medale F., 1995. Effect of dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate on growth performance, body composition, nitrogen excretion and plasma glucose levels in rainbow trout rear at 8 or 18 °C. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 35, 517-520.

Burtis, C.A., Ashwood, E.R., 1999. Clinical Chemistry, 3rd Ed., London, W. B. Saunders Publishing.

Catton, W.T, 1951. Blood cell formation in certain teleost fishes. Blood 6, 39-60.

Calvert, G.D., Yeates, R.A., 1982. Adsorption of bile salts by soya-bean flour wheat bran, Lucerne (Medicago sativa), sawdust and lignin: the effect of saponins and other plant constitutions, British Journal of Nutrition 47, 45-52.

Chatzifotis, S., Esteban, A.G., Divanach, P., 2006. Fishmeal replacement by alfalfa protein concentrate in sharp snout sea bream. Fisheries Science 72, 1313–1315.

Cole, T.G., Klotzsch, S.G., Namara, J., 1997. Measuerment of triglyceride concentration. In: Rafai, N., Warnick, G.R., Dominiczak, M.H., Hand book of lipoprotein testing, Washington, AA CC Press, 115-126.

Cristea, V., Antache, A., Grecu, I., Docan, A., Dediu, L., Mocanu, M., 2012. The Use of Phytobiotics in Aquaculture - University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, 250- 255.

Cui, Y., Wootton, R. J., 1988. Effect of ration, temperature and body size on the body composition, energy content and condition of the minnow, (Phoxinus phoxinus L.). Journal Fish Biology 32, 749-764.

Czech, A., Ognik, K., Semeniuk, W., 2010. Effect of PX concentrate of alfalfa in turkey hens’ feeding on blood biochemical parameters. In: Alfalfa in human and animal nutrition, Grela, E.R. (ed.). Stow. Rozwoju Regionalnego i Lokalnego “Progress” Dzierdziówka-Lublin, 6, 168–169.

Deeg, R., Ziegenhorn, J., 1983. Kinetic Enzymic Method for Automated Determination of Total Cholesterol in Serum. Clinical Chemistry 29, 1798-1802.

Du, Z.Y., Liu, Y.J., Tian, J.T., Wang, Y., Liang, G.Y., 2005. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, feed utilization and body composition by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquaculture Nutrition 11, 139-146.

Eskin, N.A.M., Tamir, S., 2006. Dictionary of Nutraceuticals and Functional foods, Taylor and Francis Group, London, 768 p.

European Food Safety Authority, 2009. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the European Commission on the safety of ‘Alfalfa protein concentrate' as food. The EFSA Journal 997, 1-19.

FAO, 2008. The state of world Fisheries and aquaculture (SOFIA) FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Food and Agriculture organization of the united nations Rome, Italy, Available from: http://www.fao.org/fishery/sofia/en.

Fiorentini, R. and Galoppini, C, 1981. Pilot plant production of an edible alfalfa protein concentrate. Journal of Food Science 46, 1514-1517.

Francis, G., Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K., 2001. Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 199, 197–227.

Francis, G., Kerem, Z., Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K., 2002. The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. British Journal of Nutrition 88, 587–605.

Francis, G., Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K., 2005. Quillaja saponins-a natural growth promoter for fish. Animal Feed Science and Technology 121, 147-157.

Gawel, E., Grzelak, M., 2012. The effect of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate from alfalfa (phytobiotic) on animal production – a current review. Annuals of Animal Sciences 12(3), 281–289.

Ghaedi, F. 2014. Effects of Green Cumin on growth performance, nutrition and carcass biochemical composition of Cyprinus carpio fingerlings, master's degree thesis, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, 116 p. 

Guclu, B.K., Iscan, K.M., Uyanik, F., Rren, M., Agca, A.C., 2004. Effect of alfalfa meal in diets of laying quails on performance, egg quality and some serum parameters. Archive of Animal Nutrition 58(3), 255–263.

Halver, J.E., Hardy, R.W., 2002. Fish Nutrition. Academic Press.

Hall, M.H., Henderlong, P.R., 1989. Alfalfa autotoxic fraction characterization and initial separation. Crop Science 29, 425–428.

Hepher, B., 1988. Nutrition of Pond Fishes. Cambridge University. Press, Cambridge, Great Britain, 388 P.

Hesser, E.F., 1960. Method for routine fish hematology. The progressive Fish Culturist 22, 164-170.

Hutton, K.E, 1967. Characteristics of the blood of adult pinke salmon at three stages of maturity. Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wild life Service 66, 195- 202.

Hwang, J., Hodis, H.N., Sevanian, A., 2001. Soy and alfalfa phytoestrogen extracts become potent low-density lipoprotein antioxidants in the presence of acerola cherry extract. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, 308-314.

Jauncey, K., Ross, B., 1982. A Guide to Tilapia Feed and Feeding. University of Stirling, Scotland, 111 p.

Jose, S., Mohan, M.V., Shyama, S., Nair, K.G.R., Mathew, P.T., 2006. Effect of soybeen meal- based diets on the growth and survival rate of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham). Aquaculture Nutrition 12, 275-279.

Johnson, A., Rohlfs, E., Silverman, L., Buris, C., Ashwood, E., 1999. Proteins. In: Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry, pp. 477-540.

Kandemir, S., Polat, N., 2007. Seasonal variation of total lipid and total fatty acid in muscle and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in derbent dam lake. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 7, 27-31.

Kangombe, J., Likongwe, J.S., Eda, H., Mtimuni, J.P., 2007. Effect of varying dietary whole-body composition and growth of Malawian tilapia, Oreochromiss hiranus– oulenger. Aquactue Research 38, 373-380.

Khajali, F., Eshraghi, M., Zamani, F., Fathi, E., 2007. Supplementation of exogenous enzymes to laying hen diets containing alfalafa: influence upon performance and egg yolk cholesterol and pigmentation, 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, August 26 - 30, Strasbourg , France.

Khare, C.P., 2007. Indian Medicinal Plants, an illustrated dictionary, springer reference, New Delhi, 836 p.

Kheriji, S., Cafsi, M. E., Masmoudi, W., Castell, J. D., Romdhane, M. S., 2003. Salinityand temperature effects on the lipid composition of Mullet Sea fry (Mugil cephalus). Aquaculture International 11, 571- 582.

Krinsky, N., 1993. Actions of carotenoids in biological systems. Annual Review of Nutrition 13, 561–587.

Kumar, S., Sahu, N.P., Pal, A.K., 2005. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on hematology, respiratory burst activity and histological changes in Labeo rohita juveniles. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 19, 331-344.

Mansoub, N.H., Myandoab, M.P., 2012. Effect of dietary inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) on performance and some blood metabolites of Japanese quail. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 2(1), 7-9.

Martinez-Palacios, C.A., Galvan-Cruz, R., Olvera-Novoa, M.A., Chavez-Martinez, C., 1988. The use of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis Leguminosae) meal as a partial substitute for fish meal in diets for tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Cichlidae). Aquaculture 68, 165-175.

Martino, R.C., Cyrino, J.E.P., Portz, L., Trugo, L.C., 2002. Effect of dietary lipid level on nutritional performance of the surubium (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans). Aquaculture 209, 209-218.

Michaylova, V., Ilkova, P., 1971. Photometric determination of micro amounts of calcium with arsenazo III. Analytica Chimica Acta 53: 194-8.

Miguel, A.O.N., Silvia Campos, G., Mirna Sabido, G., Carlos, A.M.P., 1990. The use of alfalfa leaf protein concentrates as a protein source in diets for tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Aquaculture 90, 291-302.

Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K., Mayes, P.A., Rodwell, V.W., 1991. The text book of Harper’s biochemistry. 22nd ed. Appleton and Large, Los Altos, California.

Nabil, F. Abd El—Hakim., Mohsen, S. Hussein., Hassaein, A. Abdel-Halim., 2009. Effects of partial replacement of soybean meal protein with dehydrated alfalfa meal (Medicago sativa L.) on growth performance and feed utilization of male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings reared in tanks. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries 13(2), 35-52.

Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of The World, 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc publisher, New Jersey, pp: 138-148.

Nya, E.J., Austin, B., 2009. Use of dietary ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases 32: 971-977.

Olvera-Novoa, M.A., Silvia Campos, G., Sabido, G.M., Martinez Palacios, C.A., 1990. The use of alfalfa leaf protein concentrates as a protein source in diets for tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Aquaculture 90, 291-302.

Packer, L., Hiramatsu, M., Yoshikawa, T., 1999. Antioxidant food supplements in human health, academic press, San Diego.

Putnam, D.H., Robinson, P., DePeters, E.D., 2008. Forage Quality and Testing, Irrigated alfalfa management for Mediterranean and desert zones, chapter 16, University of California, Division of agriculture and natural resources publication, pp: 25

Pyle, G.G., Rajotte, J.W., Couture, P., 2005. Effect of industrial matals on wild fish populations along a metal contamination gradient. Ecotoxicology and Invironmental Safety 61, 287-312.

Rechulicz, J., Ognik, K., Grela, E.R., 2014. The Effect of adding protein-xanthophylls concentrate (PX) from lucerne (Medicago sativa) on Growth parameters and redox profile in muscles of carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.), Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 14, 697-703.

Reed, JD., 1995. Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. Journal of Animal Science, 73: 1516–1528.

Reshef, G., Gestetner, B., Birk, Y., Bondi, A., 2006. Effect of alfalfa saponins on the growth and some aspects of lipid metabolism of mice and quails. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture 27(1), 63–72.

Rice, E. L., 1984. Allelopathy. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida. 422 pp. SAS Institute. 1988. SAS/ STAT User’s Guide, 6.03 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, 108 p.

Rifai, N., Bachorik, P.S., Albers, J., 1991. Lipids, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein. In: Tietz text book of clinical chemistry, Burtis, C.A., Ashwood, E.R., 3th ed. Philadelphia, W.B.Saunder, pp. 809-861.

Sacks, D.B., 1999. Carbohydrate. In: Buotis CA, Ashwood ER. Tietz text book of clinical chemistry, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, W.B.Saunder, pp. 750-808.

SalighehZadeh, R., Yavari, V., Mousavi, S.M., Zakeri, M., 2015. Effects of nutritional supplementation of Spirulina platensis on immune parameters of complement and lysozyme activity in Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874), Journal of Aquatic Ecology 5(1), 44-50.

Shireman, J.V., Rottman, R.W., Aldridge, F.J., 1983. Consumption and growth of hybrid grass carp fed four vegetation diets and trout chow in circular tanks. Journal of Fish Biology 22, 685-693.

Sidhu, G.S., Oakenfull, P.G., 1986. A mechanism for the hypocholeserolaemic activity of saponins. British Journal of Nutrition, 55, 643-649.

Sivaram, V., Babu, M.M., Citarasu, T., Immanuel, G., Murugadass, S., Marian, M.P., 2004. Growth and immune response of juvenile greasy groupers (Epinephelus tauvina) fed with herbal antibacterial active principle supplemented diets against Vibrio harveyi infections. Aquaculture 237. 9-20.

Smith, C.E., 1968. Hematological Changes in Coho salmon fed folic acid deficient diet. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 25,151-156.

Soto, J.R., Mitchell, H.L., 1960. The trypsin inhibitor of alfalfa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8, 393–395.

Storebakken, T., Choubert, G., 1991. Flesh pigmentation of rainbow trout fed astaxanthin or canthaxanthin at different feeding rates in freshwater and saltwater. Aquaculture 95, 289- 295.

Tetens, I., 2009. Opinion on the safety of ‘Alfalfa protein concentrate’as food: EFSA-Q-2008-031. European Food Safety Authority.

Thomas, L., 1998. Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics. 1st ed. frankfurt: TH-book verlagsgesellchaft.

Yigit, M., Ergün, S., Türker, A., Harmantepe, B., Erteken, A., 2010. Evaluation of soybean meal as a protein source and its effect on growth and nitrogen utilization of black sea turbot (Psetta maeotica) juveniles. Journal of Marine Science and Technology 18, 682-688.

Yildiz, M., Şener, E., Timur, M. 2007. Effects of variations in feed and seasonal changes on body proximate composition of wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 7, 45.51.

Zargari, A., 2001. Medical plants. Second edition. Tehran University Press.

Zarif Manesh, T., Zoreh Zahra, S., 2012. Sustainable development, Persistent Future. The first national conference of solutions for access to Sustainable development in deferent sections of agriculture, natural resources and environment. March 2012, Tehran, Iran.

Zhang, Ch.M., Shi, Ch.X., Wang, Ch.Zh., He, Y., Liu, Q.W., 2009. Effects of alfalfa meal on protease and amylase activities of common carps. Pratacultural Science 26(5), 128-134.