اثر سطوح مختلف نیاسین در جیره بر بافت شناسی کبد، روده و فعالیت برخی آنزیم های کبدی ماهی کپور معمولی (Cyprinus carpio

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1. کارشناسی ارشد رشته تکثیر و پرورش، گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دریا، دانشگاه علوم فنون دریایی خرمشهر، خرمشهر، ایران

2 2. استادیار گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دریا، دانشگاه علوم فنون دریایی خرمشهر، خرمشهر، ایران

چکیده

در مطالعه حاضر تغذیه با سطوح مختلف نیاسین به منظور بررسی اثرات آن بر بافت شناسی کبد، روده و فعالیت برخی  آنزیم های کبدی سرم ماهی کپور معمولی انجام گرفت. جیره گروه شاهد (جیره تجاری حاوی 30 میلی گرم نیاسین در کیلوگرم ) و 4 جیره آزمایشی اسپری شده توسط مقادیر مختلف نیاسین شامل 50، 70، 90، 110میلی گرم در کیلوگرم غذا آماده شد. برای این منظور ماهیان با میانگین وزن اولیه 35 گرم در 15 تانک 300 لیتری به تعداد 12 عدد در هر تانک به مقدار 3 بار در روز در حد سیری به مدت 50 روز تغذیه شدند. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش سطح نیاسین میزان فعالیت آنزیم های کبدی شامل آلانین آمینو ترانسفراز و آسپارتات آمینو ترانسفراز دارای کاهشی بدون اختلاف معنی دار بوده است (05/ 0P>). همچنین با افزایش سطوح نیاسین به طور معنی داری طول پرز روده افزایش یافت (05/ 0P<) که بیشترین مقدار آن 93/40 ±10/1208 میکرومتر در تیمار 90 میلی گرم نیاسین در کیلوگرم غذا در مقایسه با گروه شاهد42/34 ± 98/308 میکرومتر بود. از طرفی ضخامت پرز روده نیز به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت (05/ 0P<) که کمترین مقدار آن 05/1±49/49 میکرومتر در تیمار 90 میلی گرم نیاسین در کیلوگرم غذا در مقایسه با گروه شاهد 79/2±27/111 میکرومتر بود. بر اساس مطالعات مشاهده ای، مقدار واکوئل های چربی در روده و کبد با استفاده از سطوح مختلف نیاسین کاهش یافت و سلول های کبدی دارای ساختار نرمال بودند. لذا با توجه به نتایج استفاده از نیاسین به مقدار 90 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم غذا برای ماهی جوان کپور معمولی توصیه می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Levels of Dietary Niacin on the Gut and Liver Histology and Some Liver Enzymes Activity of Juveniles Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kheyri Mohammadi1 1
  • Hamid Mohammadiazarm2* 2
  • Amirparviz Salati2 2
  • Ebrahim Rajabzadeh2 2
1 1. Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural Resources, Khorramshar University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshar, Khouzestan, Iran
2 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural Resources, Khorramshar University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshar, Khouzestan, Iran
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted to examine effects of different levels of niacin on the gut and liver histology and also some activity of the liver enzymes in the blood serum of Common carp. A control diet (containing 30 mg niacin kg-1 commercial diet) and four other diets were prepared which had 50, 70, 90 and 110 mg niacin per kg of commercial diet, added by spraying. Fish with initial average weight of 35 g were allocated to 15 circular 300-L tanks at a density of 12 fish per tank and fed the experimental diets to satiation three times a day for 50 days. The result showed that, the activity of the liver enzymes containing alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase decreased with increase of niacin but it was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Also, the increase of niacin induced a significant increase (P < 0.05) in epithelial length of intestine, with the highest value was found in the treatment 90 mg niacin kg-1 diet (1280.10 ± 40.93 micrometer), compared with that of the control (308.98 ± 32.42 micrometer). On the other hand, epithelial thickness of intestine decreased sig­nificantly (P < 0.05), that the lowest value was in treatment of 90 mg niacin kg-1 diet (49.49 ± 1.05 micrometer), compared with  that of the control (111.27 ± 2.79 micrometer). Based on this study, lipid vacuole decreased in anterior intestine and liver by different levels of niacin. According to these results, addition of 90 mg niacin kg-1 diet is recommended for juveniles of Common carp.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Niacin
  • Histology
  • liver
  • enzyme
  • Enterocyte
  • common carp
Acerete, L., Balasch, J.,Espinosa, E., Josa, A., Tort, L., 2004. Physiological responses in eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) subjected to stress by transport and handling. Aquaculture 237, 167-178.

Aterman, K.,1958. Some observation on the sinusoidal cells of the liver. Acta Anatomica 32, 193-213.

Bolkent, S., Yanardag, R., Bolkent,S.,  Doger,M.M., 2004. Beneficial effects of combined   treatment with niacin and chromium on the liver of hyperlipemic rats. Biological Trace Element Research 101, 219-229.

Burrells, C., William, P.D., Southage, P.J., Wadsworth, S.L., 2001. Dietary nucleotides: a novel supplement in fish feeds 2. Effects on vaccination, salt water transfer, growth rate

and physiology of Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 199, 171 - 184.

Deng, J., Mai, K. , Ai, Q., Zhang, W., Tan, B., Xu, W., 2010.Alternative protein sources in diets for Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck and Schlegel): II. Effects on nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activity. Aquaculture Research 41 ,861-870.

Domezain A., Domezaine J., Sanz A., 2005. Digestive enzyme activities in adriatic sturgeon acipenser naccarii and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. A comparative study. Aquaculture 250, 391- 398.

FAO, 2010. FAO year books, fishery and aquaculture statistics. http://www.fao.org.

FAO, 2014. The State of world fisheries and aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Furne M., Hidalgo M.C., Lopez A., Garcia- Gallego M., Morales A.E., Kolkovski S., 2001. Digestive enzymes in fish larvae and juveniles. implications and applications to formulated diets. Aquaculture 200, 181– 201.

Ganji, S.H., Kukes, G.D., Lambrecht, N., Kashyap, M.L., Kamanna, V.S., 2013. Therapeutic role of niacin in the prevention and regression of hepatic steatosis in rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Americal Journal Physiology Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology 306, 320–327.

Gil, A., 2002. Modulation of immune response mediated by dietary nucleotides. The European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56(3), S1-S4.

Gries, C.L., Scott, M.L., 1972. The Pathology of thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid and niacin deficiencies in the chick. Journal of Nutrition 102, 1269-1286.

Halver, J.E., 2001. My 50 years in fish nutrition, 1949–99. Aquaculture Research 32, 615–622.

Halver, J.E., 2002. The vitamins. In: Halver JE, Hardy RW (eds) Fish nutrition, 3rd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 61–141.

Henkin, Y., Johnson, K.C., Segrest, J.P.,1990. Re challenge with crystalline niacin after drug-induced hepatitis from sustained-release niacin. The journal of American Medical Association 264, 241-243.

Imtiaz, A., 2010. Effect of dietary niacin on growth and body composition of two Indian major carps rohu, Labeo rohita, and mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton), fingerlings based on dose–response study. Aquaculture International 19, 567–584.

Johnstox, P.M., Weitz, E, M., 1952. The effect of niacin deficiency on the appearance of the Golgi apparatus in the columnar absorbing cells of the duodenum of the albino rat. Journal of Morphology 91(1), 79-109.

Knopp, R.H., Alagona, P., Davidson,M., Goldberg,A.C., Kafonek,S.D., Kashyap, M., Sprecher, D., Superko, H.R., Jenkins, S., Marcovina, S., 1988. Equivalent efficacy of a time-release form of niacin (Niaspan) given once-a-night versus plain niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Metabolism 47(9), 1097-1104.

Li, P., Gatlin III, D. M., 2006. Nucleotide nutrition in fish: Current knowledge and future applications. Aquaculture 251, 141– 152.

Liao, I.C., N.H. Chao., 2009. Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 18, 564-569.

Lokesh, J., Fernandes, J.M., Korsnes, K., Bergh, O., Brinchmann, M.F., Kiron, V., 2012. Transcriptional regulation of cytokines in the intestine of atlantic cod fed yeast derived mannan oligosaccharide or b-glucan and challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, Fish Shellfish Immunology 33 ,626-631.

Mekbungwan ,A., Yamauchi, K., 2004. Growth performance and histological intestinal alterations in piglets fed diet raw and heated pigeon pea seed meal. Histology and Histopathology 19(2), 381-389.

Moon, T.W., Walsh, P.J., Mommsen, T.P., 1985.Fish hepatocytes: a model metabolic system. Canadian Journal of Fisheries andAquatic Sciences 42, 1772-1782.

Mousavi, H., 2007. Principles of feeding fish (warm water, cold water, shrimp, caviar, ornamental), Sanam Press, Tehran, 482 p. (in Persian)

National Research Council (NRC), 1989. Recommended dietary allowances, 10th ed . Washington 88 D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council (NRC), 2011. Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. National Academies Press, Washington, D. C., 57–95p.

Ng, W-K., Serrini, G., Zhang, Z., Wilson, R.P.,1997. Niacin requirement and inability of tryptophan toact as a precursor of NAD+ in channelcatfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Aquaculture 152, 273-282.

Olsen, R.E., Myklebust, R., Ring O, E., Mayhew, T.M., 2000.The influence of dietary linseed oil  and saturated fatty acids on caecal enterocytes in artic char (Salvelinus alpinus L): a quantitative ultra structural study. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry  22, 207-216.

Poston, H.A., Livingston, D.L. (eds)., 1969. Effects of massive doses of dietary E on fingerling brook trout. In: Fisheries Research Bulletin. State of New York Conservation Department, Albany, NY. 33, 6–12.

Reimund, E., Ramos, A., 1994. Niacin- induced hepatitis and thrombocytopenia after 10 years of  niacin use. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 18, 270-271.

Rojhan, M.S., 2005, basic human histology or tissue for medical studies, Cher Press, Tehran, 576 p. (in Persian)

Sadighara, P., Gharibi, S., Moghadam Jafari, A., Jahed Khaniki, G.R., Salari, S., 2012. The antioxdant and flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 2(3), 113-117.

Safaei, N., Shomali, T., Taherianfard, M., 2011. Niacin ameliorates lipid disturbances due to glucocorticoid administration in rats. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 15, 997-1002.

Soltan, M.A., Hanafy, M.A., Wafa, M.I.A., 2008. Effect of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets. Global Veterinaria 2, 157-164.

Shahbazian, H., Mohtashami, A.Z., Ghorbani, A., Abbaspour, M.R., Belladi Musavi, S.S., Hayati, F., Lashkarara, G.R., 2011. Oral nicotin amide reduces serum phosphorus, increases HDL, and induces thrombocytopenia in hemodialysis patients: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Nefrologia 31(1), 58-65.

Shahsavani, D., Mohri, M., Taghvaeimoghadam, E., 2007. Determination of concentration  of some blood serum enzymes of Huso huso. Journal of Veterinary Research  62(3), 130-127 (in Persian).

Sheibani, M. T., 1996. Check the microscopic gastrointestinal tract of Persian sturgeon (A. persicus). PhD thesis. Veterinary faculty. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, VE VET 492 (in Persian).

Tacon, A.G.J., 1992. Nutritional fish pathology: morphological signs of nutrient deficiency and toxicity in farmed fish. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. No 330, 75 p.

Tokur, B., Ozkutuk, S., Atici, E., Ozyurt, G., Ozyurt, C. E., 2006. Chemical and sensory quality changesof fish fingers, made from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio), during frozen storage (‑18 °C). Food Chemictry 99,335- 341.

Yasar, S., J.M. Forbes.,1999. Performance and gastrointestinal response of broiler chicks fed on cereal gain-based foods soaked in water. British Poultry Science 40,65-76.

Yousef, M.I., Saad, A.A., El-Shennawy, L.K., 2009. Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47, 1176-83.

Zak, A., M. Zeman, M. Vecka., E. Tvrzicka., 2006. Nicotinic acid: an unjustly neglected remedy. Casopis ceskeho lekarnictva 145,825–831.