استفاده از تحلیل تشخیصی برای بررسی اثرات اکولوژیک پساب کارگاه تکثیر و پرورش قزل‌آلای رنگین کمان بر ساختار جوامع بنتیک (مطالعه موردی: رودخانه گاماسیاب)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1. دانش آموخته دکترای تخصصی شیلات، گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 2. دانشیار، گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 3. استاد، گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

رودخانه گاماسیاب به عنوان یکی از پرآب­ترین رودخانه­های غرب کشور بوده و دریافت کننده پساب کارگاه های پرورش قزل­آلاست. ارزیابی پساب کارگاه بر رودخانه با ارزیابی زیستی کفزیان صورت پذیرفت. نمونه برداری از ماکروبنتوزهای این رودخانه توسط سوربر، طی چهار فصل بهار، تابستان، پاییز و زمستان سال 1392 با انتخاب یک کارگاه پرورش در بالادست رودخانه و چهار ایستگاه در ورودی، خروجی، 500 متری و 1000متری کارگاه در سه تکرار انجام شد. طی این مدت،5454 نمونه از جانداران کفزی بررسی و شناسایی شد که متعلق به 11راسته، 22 خانواده و 25 جنس بودند. بیشترین فراوانی را در اکثر ایستگاه ها راسته افمروپترا تشکیل داده که 4 خانواده و 6 جنس در این راسته شناسایی شدند. فراوانی ماکروبنتوزها و درصد EPT درکلیه فصول در ایستگاه خروجی کاهش یافت، غنای تاکسونی در ایستگاه خروجی در بهار و پاییز کاهش و درتابستان افزایش داشته که این تغییرات معنی دار نبود. تغییرات شاخص تنوع شانون- واینر نیز در غالب ایستگاه­­ها معنی دار نبوده است. شاخص هیلسنهوف کیفیت آب را در ایستگاه­های مختلف بسیار خوب، خوب و مناسب ارزیابی نمود که غالباً در ایستگاه خروجی کیفیت آب یک درجه کاهش داشت. در بررسی اثر ایستگاه­ها و فصل­های مختلف بر ماکروبنتوزها از طریق تحلیل تشخیصی، مشخص گردید که ایستگاه خروجی بیشترین تفاوت را با ایستگاه ورودی دارد و فصل تابستان نیز بیشترین تفاوت را از لحاظ جوامع ماکروبنتوزی با فصول دیگر دارد. همچنین بررسی همبستگی دو شاخص شانون – واینر و EPT/Chir با بزرگ بی مهرگان کفزی نشان داد که این دو شاخص در بررسی اثر ایستگاه­ها با یکدیگر همبستگی منفی و در بررسی اثر فصل­ها همبستگی مثبت دارند. با فاصله گرفتن حدود 1 کیلومتر از ایستگاه خروجی شرایط تا حدودی بهبود یافته ولی بطور کلی فون بنتوزهای رودخانه تغییر کرده و پس ازطی یک کیلومتر به حالت اول بر نمیگردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Using Discriminant Analysis to Examine Ecological Effects of Rainbow Trout Farms Wastewater on Benthic Community Structure, a Case Study with the Gamasiab River

نویسندگان [English]

  • Lima Tayebi1 1
  • Hadi Poorbagher2* 2
  • Hamid Farahmand2 3
  • Gholamreza Rafiee3 3
  • Alireza Mirvaghefi3 3
1 1. PhD Graduate, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 2. Associate professor, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 3. Professor, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The Gamasiab River has one of the highest discharge in the western Iran receiving wastewater of trout frames. The present study investigated effects of wastewater using bioassessment of benthic organisms. The benthos were sampled over four seasons using a surber sampler on four stations, upstream, on the farm outlet, 500 and 1000 m down the farm outlet. 5454 benthic fauna were identified that were belonged to 11 orders, 22 families and 25 genera. The ephemeropterids had the highest abundance belonged to four families and six genera. Over all seasons, macroinvertebrates abundance and EPT percentage decreased on the inlet. The taxonomic richness decreased over the spring and autumn and increased in the summer, which was not significant statistically. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index showed no significant changes in most sampling stations. Based on the Hilsinhoff biotic index, the water quality in the sampling stations were very good, good and suitable. Using the discriminant analysis, the outlet of the farm had the highest difference with the sampling stations in the upstream area, and the benthic structure had the highest difference with the samples collected in other seasons. A negative correlation was detected between Shannon-Weiner and EPT/Chir when the sampling stations were examined, and a positive correlation when sampling times (seasons) were examined using discriminant analysis. In conclusion, the water quality improved 1 km downstream of the farm but the benthic structures were not fully recovered. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trout Farm Wastewater
  • Rainbow trout
  • Macroinvertebrates
  • Gamasiab River
  • Biotic Indices
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